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Richard Hamilton 



Richard Hamilton 



The Solomon R Guggenheim Museum 
New York 



Published by The Solomon R Guggenheim Foundation, New York, 1973 
Library of Congress Card Catalogue Number: 73-85377 
All rights reserved 
Printed in Germany 



The Solomon R Guggenheim Foundation 



The Solomon R Guggenheim Museum 



President 

Peter Lawson-Johnston 



Director 

Thomas M 



lesser 



Trustees 

H H Arnason 

Eleanor Countess Castle Stewart 

Joseph WDonner 

Mason Welch Gross 

Henry Allen Moe 

AChauncey Newlin 

Mrs Henry Obre 

Daniel Catton Rich 

Albert EThiele 

Michael F Wettach 

Carl Zigrosser 



Staff 

Henry Berg, Deputy Director 

Linda Konheim, Administrative Officer 

Agnes R Connolly, Auditor 

Susan L Halper, Administrative Assistant 

John P Rafferty, Managerial Assistant 

Louise Averill Svendsen, Curator 

Diane Waldman, Curator of Exhibitions 

Margit Rowell, Curator of Special Exhibitions 

Carol Fuerstein, Editor 

Linda Shearer, Research Fellow 

Mary Joan Hall, Librarian 

Ward Jackson, Archivist 

Cheryl McClenney, Sabine Rewald, Coordinators 

Orrin Riley, Conservator 

Lucy Belloli, Assistant Conservator 

Saul Fuerstein, Preparator 

Robert E Mates, Photographer 

Susan Lazarus, Assistant Photographer 

David Roger Anthony, Registrar 

Elizabeth M Funghini, Cherie A Summers, Assistant 

Registrars 

Dana Cranmer, Coordinator 

Anne B Grausam, Officer, Public Affairs 
Miriam Emden, Members' Representative 
Darrie Hammer, Information 
Carolyn Porcelli, Coordinator 

Peter G Loggin, Building Superintendent 

Guy Fletcher, Jr., Assistant Building Superintendent 

Charles F Banach, Head Guard 



Contents 

7 Lenders to the Exhibition 

8 Preface by Thomas M Messer 
10 Introduction by John Russell 

16 Commentary by Richard Hamilton and illustrations 

89 Catalogue of the Exhibition 

95 Bibliography 

99 Chronology 



Lenders 



Harry N Abrams Family Collection, New York 

Mr and Mrs David Allford 

L M Asher Family 

Mary Reyner Banham 

Reyner Banham 

Rolf Becker, Bremen, Germany 

Joseph Beiiys, Dusseldorf 

Franco Castelli, Bellagio, Italy 

Dr J Cladders, Krefeld, Germany 

Anthony Diamond 

Rita Donagh 

Mrs Marcel Duchamp 

Alexander Dunbar 

Eric Franck, Kusnacht, Switzerland 

Dominy Hamilton 

Edwin Janss, Jr., Thousand Oaks, California 

Mr and Mrs Benn Levy 

M J Long, London 

Richard Morphet 

Reinhard Onnasch, Cologne 

Daniela Palazzoli, Milan 

Petersburg Press, London 

Christopher Selmes, London 

Mrs Richard Smith 

H Sohm, Markgrdningen, Germany 

Andree Stassart, Paris 

Peter Stuyvesant Foundation, London 

John Taylor, London 

Sergio and Fausta Tosi 

Mr and Mrs O M Lingers, Cologne/Berlin 

Andreas Vowinckel, Cologne 

Christoph Vowinckel, Cologne 

Wasserman Family Collection 



Colin St John Wilson, London 

Borough of Swindon Museum and Art Gallery, England 

British Council, London 

Kunsthalle Tubingen, Germany 

Tate Gallery, London 

The Arts Council of Great Britain 

The Museum of Modern Art, New York 

The Solomon R Guggenheim Museum, New York 

Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne 

Galeria del Leone 

Galerie Neuendorf, Hamburg 

Studio Marconi, Milan 



Preface and Acknowledgements 



Richard Hamilton is now a central figure among British artists, indeed one of 
the relatively few contemporary Europeans whose work has special meaning 
for an American public. By temperament, disposition and through conscious 
affinity, Hamilton relates to Marcel Duchamp, who influenced his thinking and 
his attitudes more than the appearance of his work. Like Duchamp, Hamilton is 
idea, rather than form-oriented. He is confident that art, above all, is the 
process of solving visual problems and that it has little to do with the attainment 
of style. As is often the case with artists of this persuasion, their work, at the time 
of its conception, seems beyond the scope of art and remote from what is 
esthetically digestible. Richard Hamilton was no exception to this rule, and for 
years his finely calculated surfaces were viewed chiefly as superior design. A 
change in this attitude of qualified acceptance came with the retrospective 
exhibition at the Tate Gallery in the spring of 1970- an event that converted 
many a doubting Thomas and resulted in widespread interest and in growing 
understanding of Hamilton's work. In part, this was due to a clarification of the 
underlying concepts and ideas through the passage of time. But, concepts and 
ideas are subject to verification through surface manifestations. It is, in the end, 
the vitality and the visual persuasiveness of individual paintings, drawings, 
prints, and objects through which the artist's thought processes assumed plastic 
form and validity. Richard Hamilton was an artist of impressive accomplishment 
for at least ten years but the proper reading of his contribution had to await, first, 
the full development of the Pop style, and then, the subsequent articulations of 
the Minimal and the Conceptual directions. Only through these did Hamilton 
become fully visible as a seminal figure and as a primary link between Duchamp 
and much current art. 



This exhibition was selected and presented by Richard Hamilton himself. 
Selectivity in this case preceded the exhibition selection, since the artist, self- 
censoring in the extreme, produces few works and subsequently eliminates 
many. The Tate Gallery's show, for this reason, was conceived as a presentation 
of the totality of Hamilton's oeuvre, as far as such an aim proved feasible. The 
same pattern has been followed here and the exhibition therefore hews closelyto 
its precursor, except that certain works not available three years ago are now 
included, while others that were part of the Tate show could not be obtained this 
time. Prints have been eliminated, but three years of Hamilton's work since the 
Tate show have enriched and deepened the retrospective which now consists of 
approximately 160 works within a time span of twenty-four years from 1949 to the 
present. Installation, normally a curatorial responsibility, was also left to the 
artist. This has been done because of Hamilton's manifestly distinguished design 
sense, and also, because he studiously familiarized himself with our Frank Lloyd 
Wright museum building in preparation for the series of prints, drawings and 
reliefs for his now famous conception entitled The Solomon R Guggenheim.' 
We therefore owe Richard Hamilton more than the usual measure of gratitude. 

Besides him I wish to thank John Russell for an introductory essay that could 
only have resulted from great intimacy with Hamilton's work over a long period of 
time. The Tate Gallery deserves special acknowledgement for valuable technical 



assistance toward exhibition and catalogue. The Tate also figures among the 
separately listed lenders who have assumed the risks and the inconvenience 
that come with the temporary removal of their works, in order to afford an 
opportunity for Hamilton's presentation at the Guggenheim Museum and, 
subsequently, in other art centers. Lastly, thanks are due to Lynda Morris of 
London for gathering material for this catalogue and to Linda Konheim, the 
Guggenheim's Administrative Officer for coordinating the entire project. 



Thomas M Messer 

Director, The Solomon R Guggenheim Museum 



10 

Introduction 



If there is in England a 'painter of modern life,' in the Baudelairean sense, that 
painter is Richard Hamilton. It is he who 'distils the eternal from the transitory' 
and takes as his material 'the ephemeral, the fugitive, the contingent, the half of 
art whose other half is the eternal and the immutable.' He has been doing this 
since 1956, explicitly; and he has been doing it in relation to material which 
Baudelaire would certainly have classed as ephemeral, fugitive and contingent: 
modern, in a word. What could be more modern, in Baudelaire's sense, than 
Hamilton's material: the Chrysler ad, the Braun brochure, the movie still, the aerial 
photograph, the color-postcard of a summer resort, the record-sleeve, the news- 
photograph, the unvarying design for the cover of Time magazine? Hamilton has 
ruminated on all these in ways of which Baudelaire would have approved. 

They are specifically European ways. Hamilton is a man of many masks, and 
his preferred methods are oblique, multifarious and slow to reveal themselves. 
When he uses Pop material, for instance, it is not in the heraldic, frontal, 
echoless manner which people expect from Pop. His paintings do not declare 
themselves; and he himself is no frontiersman, ever ready with plain statements 
that mean just what they say. His paintings reveal, year by year, new zones of 
unmastered meaning. Sometimes their modernity is uppermost, sometimes their 
fine-art side; either way, history abets Hamilton. 

Just about any one of his paintings, taken at random, would illustrate this. For 
Hamilton is two things in one: a critic of language and a critic of society. These 
two functions could pull different ways, but in his case they mesh and multiply. 
In 1956, for instance, Hamilton made what is still the most notorious of his works: 
the collage, a mere ten inches by nine, that is called 'Just what it is that makes 
today's homes so different, so appealing?' Such was the success of this tiny 
and painstaking collocation that many people are still stuck with the idea of 
Hamilton as the man who single-handedly laid down the terms within which Pop 
art was to operate. And it does, admittedly, touch glancingly but once and for all 
on the subjectmatter of Oldenburg's Bedroom, Wesselmann's American Nudes, 
Warhol's branded-package paintings of 1962, and Lichtenstein's comic-strip 
paintings of the same year. It did this, moreover, at a time when Oldenburg was 
working in the Cooper Union Museum Library, when Wesselmann was still a 
student, when Warhol's first show was still six years away, and when Lichtenstein 
was living in Cleveland, Ohio, and on the point of going over to Abstract 
Expressionism. There can be no questioning the priority of interest which 
Hamilton established. 

Yet this is no sooner said that we remember the enormous differences, the 
cultural divide of rarely paralleled proportions, which separates our two nations. 
Americans like to take their ideas one by one and hammer them home till the 
head of the hammer comes apart from the shaft: witness the Brobdingnagian 
proportions of Oldenburg's 'Bedroom,' the set-faced repetition which plays so 
large a part in Warhol's oeuvre, and the fining and refining of the central idea in 
so much of Lichtenstein. Americans like winners': and they like them to win by 
a knockout - whence the general character of the New York art-scene, where 
every day is St Valentine's Day and a man is not a man until he has eaten six 
other men for breakfast. 

Our English way is by contrast aloof, distanced, oblique. It is the product of a 
civilization in which most things have been said before, and said very well. They 



11 



have not often been said in art, admittedly; but English art has its share of the 
general wariness, the disposition to test for overtones and echoes and buried 
borrowings, with which English people examine ideas that purport to be new. 
Hamilton in 1956 was engaged in a revolutionary act: nothing less than the 
overthrow of that hierarchy of preoccupations which had been accepted in art 
for as long as anyone could remember. But in terms of method his approach has 
always been that of the locksmith, not that of the dynamiter; and in this case he 
worked so subtly that even now, after seventeen years, we are still finding new 
pockets of meaning in this little picture. 

At the time of Hamilton's retrospective at the Tate Gallery, London, in 1 970 
Richard Morphet pointed out for instance that 'Just what is it . . .?' secreted 
allusions that had nothing to do with the brash, blank, one-to-one statements of 
Pop. What looks like a marbleized ceiling is 'a photograph of the earth taken by 
an early high altitude research rocket.' What looks like a length of mass-produced 
carpeting is 'a photograph of hundreds of people on a beach, deliberately 
symbolizing the mass of humanity' (and foreshadowing, incidentally, a group of 
paintings and prints which Hamilton was to produce in 1967). Hamilton in this 
picture picked off, one by one, the instruments of emancipation with which 
society was hoping to renew itself: the financial newspaper which would keep 
the householder ahead of the market, the kingsize can of ham which stood where 
earlier generations would have placed a T'ang horse or a Meissen group, the 
bizarre variants of sexual display which measure attraction by the ounce, and 
the award of heraldic status to the Ford Motors badge. 

Hamilton at that time had never been to the United States. He spoke for a 
generation of English voyeurs for whom America was wonderland, to be known 
vicariously from movies and magazines. He was not tempted, however, by the 
headlong identification which led some of his friends and associates to come 
belting across the Atlantic at the first opportunity which presented itself. Still less 
did he lard either his work or his conversation with Americanisms in the simian 
manner which some of his contemporaries in England have still to outgrow. In 
such matters he was irreducibly cool, at a time when 'cool' had still a merely 
meteorological connotation. In this, he was true to his origins; and it is worth 
explaining at this point that Richard Hamilton is a quintessential Londoner, - and 
a Londoner, what is more, of a particular generation. 

For it is relevant to Hamilton' s achievement that he was born in London in 
1922 and grew up in the England of George Orwell. Without knowing this, it is 
difficult to estimate by how dexterous a feat of adjustment he has mastered the 
Europe of the 1970s. Not every American realizes by just how much Europe has 
changed since World War II: above all, in respect of the making and marketing 
of art. Where his prints are concerned, Hamilton is like the great gourmets of the 
past who got their asparagus handpicked from one country, their young lamb 
handpicked from a second, and their strawberries handpicked from a third. He 
knows to a whisker what distinguishes the mastercraftsmen of Hamburg from 
the mastercraftsmen of Paris, and in what way the workshops of London may or 
may not have the edge on the workshops of Milan. In his prints he is the 
complete cosmopolitan. 

Cosmopolitanism before 1939 meant an uneasy, superficial amalgam of 
whatever was in fashion at the time. In the 1970s it means an inspired choice 



12 



among preoccupations that are common to all so-called 'advanced' societies. It 
implies an ideal standard of information, a specific level of technical achievement, 
and the freedom of a communications-system that bypasses language. It means 
being attentive to a universal currency of ideas in matters of idiom, ambition, 
frontiers of interest, and sexual stance. It is the reverse of provincial, and it is a 
matter in which provincial attitudes betray themselves instantaneously. It need 
not be the prerogative of English-speaking persons, and it has been commanded 
with notable success by one or two artists for whom English is not their first 
language; but it does seem to escape Frenchmen, Germans, Italians and 
Japanese in general. Enthusiasm alone will not force its secrets: a critical turn of 
mind is essential, and it is there that Hamilton's first twenty-five years are 
fundamental. 

He grew up in an England that is almost as remote from us today as is the 
England of Charles Dickens: an England characterized by stratified inequalities 
- of money, of opportunity, of social endowment - which would now be 
unthinkable. A young Londoner in the 1930s became a critic of society, whether 
he knew it or not, by the simple fact of walking about London and wondering what 
to do with himself. He also assumed, whether he noticed it or not, the protective 
color of the Londoner: an attitude to life which is at once wry, steadfast and 
disrespectful. He took nothing for granted. London today is, more than any other 
European city, free, open, and loosely articulated. It allows of instantaneous 
acknowledgements such as once took twenty years to bring off, and of piratical 
forays abroad such as were inhibited in the 1920s and 30s by the existence of 
great Europeans whose achievement was beyond emulation. London in the 
1930s was a great Imperial city; but it was also a closed, finite, hierarchical 
society in which the young Hamilton could at best lope around, observing and 
absorbing as a predestined subordinate. 

All that has long since been changed. He was alive, even at fifteen and sixteen, 
to living art. He had kind mentors, one of whom gave him twenty cents to go and 
see 'Guernica' when it was brought to London. He was under age when he first 
begged and bluffed his way into artschool, and there are not many artists of his 
stature who have devoted so many hundreds of hours to the ancient discipline of 
drawing in class from the figure. But he was no less alert to the potential of the 
image, and of the mark, in a non-art setting. It interested him to find out just what 
was involved in industrial draftsmanship in which the stipulated precision was 
vastly greater than anything that was taught in artschool. Between 1940 and 
1946 he got at least as much as he wanted of all this, since he was employed as a 
jig and tool draftsman throughout World War II. In 1946 he began an eighteen- 
months' spell of military service: and when he got out, in 1948, it was in a world 
transformed. 

Hamilton has always had, as it happens, a most delicate and lyrical fancy: 
and, with that, a rare tenderness of touch. These traits are masked, as often as not, 
by his preoccupation with system; but they are very much there, for anyone who 
cares to look for them, and they stand for an element of English reserve which is 
fundamental to Hamilton's make-up and bearing, no matter how strongly 
he comes on as the assured technocrat. In hands other than his a painting like 
'd'Orientation' (1952) would look 'clever' in a contrived and diagrammatic way; 
but as it is by Hamilton the picture sets up an idiosyncratic pull between the 



13 



hesitant, deeply-felt character of the individual marks (and their no less delicate 
and hesitant tonality) and the tyrannical conception which they put before 
us: that of a whole series of perspective-systems which compel, in Richard 
Morphet's account, 'a curious dual or multiple orientation for any mark occurring 
within more than one of the 90-degree-angle viewpoints created.' 

The inclusion in that same painting of a fragment from Nature - part of a 
jellyfish - may remind us that Hamilton is, apart from other things, a naturalist of 
the manufactured image: a man who pores over images not made by hand with 
something of the intensity which the great biologist D'Arcy Thompson (1 860-1 948) 
pored over the cannon-bones of ox, sheep, and giraffe. Hamilton spent, as it 
happens, several years of his life (1949-1951) on the elucidation, in exhibition- 
form, of D'Arcy Thompson's On Growth and Form; and in this field, as in all the 
others with which he has concerned himself, he went straight for the best. D'Arcy 
Thompson has been described by someone well qualified to discuss the matter 
as 'an aristocrat of learning whose intellectual endowments are not likely ever 
again to be combined within one man.' He was classical scholar, mathematician, 
and naturalist; and in all three domains he reached the highest eminence. (In 
particular, he held professorships for sixty-four years in his capacity as a 
naturalist.) If I recall the memory of this great man it is to suggest that through 
his long association with On Growth and Form, and through the personal 
contacts with major scientists of our own day which were incidental to it, 
Hamilton developed an English-style Grundlichkeit, an absolute determination to 
think every subject through, which is more common in the laboratory than in the 
studio. Pictures like 'Bathers I and II,' or like the variant versions of 'I'm 
Dreaming of a White Christmas,' have within them an element of scientific 
inquiry which goes far beyond the notion of tinkering, however deftly, with 
techniques. 

Among other cases of his 'going straight for the best,' I would instance his 
choice of Ulysses as the book he most wanted to illustrate. For the critic of 
language - verbal or non-verbal - it was an ideal choice; and it allowed him to 
relive, in his own person and practice, the recent history of art. Each plate was 
to have a different sign-system; and although the project was never completed it 
takes rank with another unfinished series - Balthus's illustrations for Wuthering 
Heights -as a venture which gives new dignity to the name of "illustrator." 
Hamilton learned from James Joyce that a sign — word, image, or mixture of 
both - can point several ways at once; and he also learned that avant-garde 
procedures can be applied to the most raunchy, down-to-earth, petit-bourgeois 
subject matter. Neither lesson has been forgotten: there is nothing rarefied or 
thin-blooded about the underlying subject-matter of Hamilton's paintings, no 
matter how fastidious their execution may be, and the student of his titles will 
note the recurrent use of impacted and specifically Joycean forms of language, 
're Nude' (1954) is about the nude, quite clearly; but it is also about the nude 
renewed (at a time when most of Hamilton's contemporaries had abandoned the 
figure). Transition' of the same year is about the view from a train; it is about 
the transition from one viewpoint to another; and, finally and incidentally, it 
has an echo of transition, the magazine that did a great deal for Joyce. And 
Hamilton carries over this preoccupation with layered meaning into the paintings 
themselves. 



14 



He takes it as axiomatic that where the image is concerned the artist now 
works in a situation of superabundance. He knows as well as we do that it takes 
only the most minimal talent to play on the associations of the ready-made 
image. What he does is something quite different: he works on the ready-made 
image until it comes up with a completely new set of associations. Those 
associations may be with high art, as when he takes a hand-tinted picture-post- 
card of the seashore and makes it look successively like a cave-painting, a late 
panel by Seurat, or an ink drawing by Henri Michaux. They may also relate to 
human behavior (often in one of its less decorous forms). He opens out certain 
limited and conventional forms of statement - as in the news-photo or the 'full 
color' ad — in such a way that they become instruments of revelation. The point 
of departure looks anonymous enough; but we end up on a guided tour of Duke 
Bluebeard's castle with the Duke himself jangling the keys. 

From 1956 onwards Hamilton is his own best commentator. But in his laconic, 
understated technical notes there is, once again, an element of English reserve. 
Much is left, quite rightly, for the observer to find out for himself: not least, the 
extent to which these are, as he once said, 'paintings of and about our society.' 
There are points at which his notes say everything, but there are also points at 
which they say nothing. There is more of 'How?' than of 'Why?' in these notes. 
They also deal, necessarily, with matters immediately to hand, rather than with 
such broad governing principles as may have presided over the work. 

I don't think, for instance, that they bring out the importance, for Richard 
Hamilton, of the cases in which he 'went straight for the best' among other artists. 
Hamilton was just about alone in post-war England in his admiration for Francis 
Picabia, and there may seem to be little in common, in temperamental terms, 
between Hamilton and the spendthrift hidalgo who said 'Everything for today, 
nothing for yesterday, nothing for tomorrow.' But anyone who takes note of 
Picabia's way with the art of the past, his obsession with machine-forms, his 
talent for punning inscriptions, his re-invention of pictorial love-poetry and his 
expert knowledge of fast and beautiful cars will soon see that he and Hamilton 
had multiple affinities. In so far as Picabia may be said to have squandered his 
gifts, he and Hamilton have nothing in common; but Hamilton learned from him 
that the ideal is not to get stuck with an idea and work it to death, but rather to 
perfect it and pass on to another. 

In that matter the incomparable exemplar was Marcel Duchamp, with whom 
Hamilton was on terms of close friendship and intermittent collaboration from 
1959 onwards. It is sometimes put about that Duchamp devalued the making of 
art-objects and settled thereafterfor nearly fifty years of quizzical idleness; butthe 
truth is, first, that he did after all produce the two most elaborate artworks of this 
century and, second, that the catalogue raisonne of his complete works numbers 
392 separate items. What he proved was that a long patience is fundamental to 
the highest achievement; nor did his aloof and thrifty turn of mind preclude the 
direct statement of passions as powerful, and as enduring, as any in the long 
history of art. 

Hamilton first wrote to Duchamp in 1956, but in his 're Nude' of two years 
earlier he may be said to have re-made Duchamp's 'Nude Descending' in his 
own image: in other words he took the idea of successive vision and applied it 
not to a figure walking downstairs but to the traditional, monolithic seated nude. 



15 



In reconstructing the 'Large Glass' in 1965-66 Hamilton carried out as 
finely-sustained a feat of emulation as can be imagined; but the kinship of mind 
between the two can be discerned in many of the items in this exhibition — and 
not least where Hamilton has altered an existing image with an effect of 
soundless laughter. No one can look seriously at the totality of Duchamp's 
oeuvre without realizing that his ultimate ambition was not to devalue the idea of 
the work of art, and still to abolish it, but to re-define the terms on which art could 
stay in business. In this, as in much else, Hamilton is his disciple. 

The 'Large Glass' is, like Courbet's 'The Studio,' a picture 'of and about our 
society'; and it carried over into the 1920s, as its successor 'Etant Donnes . . .' 
carried over into the 1970s, a comprehensive 19th century ambition. Duchamp 
set out to answer the question 'On what terms and with what means can art 
continue to give a complete portrait of society?' Hamilton has done and is doing 
the same thing; the society is different, the terms are different, and so are the 
means. But that's what it's all about; and what we have in this exhibition is an 
interim report from someone who can truly be ranked as 'a painter of modern 
life.' 



John Russell 



16 
Commentary 



The major part of the commentary which 
accompanies the catalogue entries and 
illustrations is an assembly, a collage, of 
published notes made, on occasion, 
between 1964 and 1972, and some earlier 
fragments from writings which appeared 
with reproductions of paintings in 
magazines. They attempt to describe and 
provide information on motivations and 
techniques - most were written at the 
request of publishers, dealers or museum 
officials. 

It was necessary to prune the material 
quite drastically. There were overlaps in 
the different catalogues; even cut, there is 
the danger of repetitiousness. Sometimes 
I had to modify the original to maintain 
continuity: I also took the opportunity to 
correct typographic and grammatic 
errors. There was no overwhelming need 
to maintain an art-historical accuracy 
(in any case, the sources are all listed in 
the bibliography); the Guggenheim 
catalogue is a unique opportunity to place 
words and pictures in a new and fuller 
context. 

Urbane Image is exceptional in that it tries 
to be true to its own art; it is literary, even 
poetic, in intention. I wanted to make a 
piece of 'copy' analogous rather than 
explanatory. It uses literary equivalents of 
the techniques to be found in the 
paintings: collage, paraphrase, style 
change, irony tempered with affection - a 
sophisticated, if superficial, erudition 
masks a goggle-eyed wonder at the world. 



There was a mood of the late '50s felt 
both in London and New York, which 
made some painters strive for the unique 
attributes of our epoch - the particular 
character of our community as it is to 
register its identity on social history. 
Those affected by such recurring 
pressures seek to fabricate a new image 
of art to signify an understanding of 
man's changing state and the continually 
modifying channels through which his 
perception of the world is attained. 

A quest for specific aspects of our time 
and the contribution that new visual tools 
make to the way we see our world, 
certainly generated the things seen here. 
Coupled with an obsessive interest in 
modes of seeing at a purely technical 
level is a strong awareness of Art. TV is 
no less nor more legitimate an influence 
than New York Abstract Expressionism, 
for example. The wide range of these 
preoccupations led to a wilful acceptance 
of pastiche as a keystone of the approach 

- anything which moves the mind through 
the visual senses is as grist to the mill but 
the mill must not grind so small that the 
ingredients lose their flavor in the whole. 

The standards by which a work of art is 
judged are not always coincidental with 
the aspirations behind its production. 
Factors subdued, or even suppressed, 
can later emerge as dominant. The notes 
that accompany the illustrations inform 
about motives but they can do nothing to 
modify the plastic qualities (deficiencies 
or virtues) of the pictures. Those who are 
curious about why a certain painting looks 
as it does can use them, others may 
prefer to let the image tell its own story. 
It is the differences between each - the 
program rewitten for every blank panel 

- that are my concern: but unity of 

a personal expression may well be the 
only criterion with which the artist is 
ultimately confronted. 



(Hanover Gallery catalogue 1 964) 



17 



These are part of a group of studies for a 
set of illustrations to James Joyce's 
Ulysses. It was intended to make an 
engraving for each chapter of the book. 
The project was abandoned when no 
publisher could be found. Most of my 
drawings and watercolors are studies for 
paintings or prints - as the prints 
themselves are often studies or adjuncts 
of paintings. The Ulysses drawings are an 
exception in that, though fairly large, 
they are composed for a different, 
necessarily smaller, scale. 

The chapters, or episodes, of Ulysses are 
treated in various literary styles by Joyce. 
Indeed, one chapter alone, that dealing 
with the maternity home (Home's house), 
goes from the birth of language through a 
chronology of historical styles to modern 
vernacular. I planned to make a pictorial 
equivalent of Joyce's stylistic leaps. 

A prediliction for diversity of media from 
drawing to drawing, and a diversity of 
media within a single drawing, has 
established itself as an oddly unifying 
factor. As time goes by I become 
increasingly aware of the irrelevance of 
making a distinction between one medium 
and another or one process and another 
or even one style and another. 

Sometimes things labelled 'drawing' have 
little to do with overt handling of a 
medium. It can be that a working drawing 
is no more than a photograph retouched, 
or otherwise modified, to lead to further 
progress of a painting. I would be loath to 
make a distinction between these and a 
watercolor or pastel drawing of a more 
conventional kind. 

All are to a lesser or greater degree 
tentative. They are carried only as far as 
needs be for the exercise in hand. Yet 
each attempts to be explicit and precise 
as far as it goes. 

(Whitworth Gallery catalogue 1972) 





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Leopold Bloom 
1949 



Leopold Bloom (He foresaw his pale 

body') 

1949 



In Home's House 
1949 



The transmogrifications of Bloom 
1949 





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There are several sketchbook studies for 
paintings made in the early 50's. These 
were an exploration of the possibilities of 
devising notations, schematic perspective 
superimpositions, to describe the 
viewpoints of a moving spectator. The 
'Super-ex-position' sketches are studies 
for the largest of these paintings which, 
though completed, was later destroyed 
as unsuccessful. 

(Whitworth Gallery catalogue 1972) 



19 




5 

Induction 

1950 

6 

Chromatic spiral 

1950 

11 

Sketch for 'Super-ex-position' I 

1953 

12 

Sketch for 'Super-ex-position' II 

1953 



Particular system 
1951 



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d'Orientation 

1952 

8 

Self-portrait 

1951 

10 

After Muybridge 

1953 

15' 

Trainsition Mil 
1954 







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' After Muybridge' relates to the problems 
considered in a painting called 're Nude' 
and to various other prints and drawings 
made at the time. Futurism and Cubism 
represented two distinct approaches 
to picturing motion. Futurism was about 
subject motion and Cubism was about 
spectator motion. The studies after 
Muybridge were made from series of 
photographs in Muybridge's exploration 
of the human figure in motion. By making 
drawn superimpositions of the separate 
Muybridge photographs the image was 
coincidentally nearer to Marey's multiple 
exposures producing photographic 
superposition on the same negative. The 
result is to create new volumes - the 
forms generated include time as a factor 
and I was interested also, in a quite 



pedantic way, to see how Boccioni's 
sculpture of a moving figure in space 
formalized these temporal progressions. 

(Whitworth Gallery catalogue 1972) 



22 



The Cubist attitude to the problem of 
rendering motion was somewhat more 
formalistic than 'analytic', when compared 
with the Futurism of Boccioni or its 
French equivalent, the paintings made 
by Duchamp in 1911. 're Nude' examines 
the consequences of applying Futurist 
method to the Cubist concept of spectator 
motion, as opposed to subject motion. 
A classically 'still' subject, an art school 
nude, is approached in three stages. 

Moving a large easel to and fro was too 
cumbersome a procedure. It was 
necessary to make a watercolor drawing 
to provide information that could be 
transferred to the painting in the model's 
absence. It happened, by chance, that the 
blank white panel was behind the nude 
when the drawing was begun. After the 
first life session a start was made on the 
painting. On returning to work with the 
model, I found that the subject had 
changed, because the results of the 
previous session had become part of the 
painting's subject. Each phase of work 
fed into and complicated the subject 
further. The three shifts towards the 
model were a constant but the three-stage 
painting was itself expanded by three 
shifts, so that, finally, the figure appears 
twelve times. 



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(Whitworth Gallery catalogue 1 972) 



13 

Study for 'Still-life?' 

1954 

14 

Still-life? 

1954 

16 

Study re Nude 

1954 

17 

re Nude 

1954 




23 




24 



Imagery 

Journalism 

Cinema 

Advertising 

Television 

Styling 

Sex symbolism 

Randomization 

Audience participation 

Photographic image 

Multiple image 

Mechanical conversion of imagery 

Diagram 

Coding 

Technical drawing 

Perception 

Color 

Tactile 

Light 

Sound 

Perspective inversion 

Psychological shock 

Memory 

Visual illusions 



'Instant' art from the magazines. The 
collage (made for the catalogue of the 
'This is Tomorrow' exhibition) is a 
representation of a list of items considered 
relevant to the question of the title. The 
image should, therefore, be thought of as 
tabular as well as pictorial. 

'This is Tomorrow' came at an opportune 
moment to assess the thinking that had 
taken place in the Independent Group at 
the Institute of Contemporary Arts in 
the preceding years. For myself it 
was not so much a question of finding 
art forms but an examination of values. 
'We resist that kind of activity which is 
primarily concerned with the creation of 
style. We reject the notion that 
'tomorrow' can be expressed through the 
presentation of rigid formal concepts. 
Tomorrow can only extend the range of 
the present body of visual experience. 
What is needed is not a definition of 
meaningful imagery but the development 
of our perceptive potentialities to accept 
and utilize the continual enrichment of 
visual material.' All of the paintings 
produced since 1956 have attempted to 
assimilate these gains in the most electic 
and catholic way. 

(This is Tomorrow' catalogue 1956 
Hanover Gallery catalogue 1964 
Studio International 1969) 



(Unpublished, 1956) 



Pop Art is: 

Popular (designed for a mass audience) 

Transient (short term solution) 

Expendable (easily forgotten) 

Low cost 

Mass produced 

Young (aimed at youth) 

Witty 

Sexy 

Gimmicky 

Glamorous 

Big business 

(Unpublished, 1957) 



18 

Just what is it that makes today's homes 

so different, so appealing? 

1956 



25 




26 



Partly as a result of the 'Man Machine and 
Motion' exhibition, biased by the Pop-Art 
preoccupation of the Independent Group 
at the ICA and using directly some 
material investigated by Reyner Banham 
in his auto styling research, I had been 
working on a group of paintings and 
drawings which portray the American 
automobile as expressed in the mag-ads. 
The painting 'Hommage a Chrysler Corp.,' 
is a compilation of themes derived from 
the glossies. The main motif, the vehicle, 
breaks down into an anthology of 
presentation techniques. One passage, 
for example, runs from a prim emulation 
of in-focus photographed gloss to 
out-of-focus gloss to an artist's 
representation of chrome to ad-mans 
sign meaning 'chrome'. Pieces are taken 
from Chrysler's Plymouth and Imperial 
ads, there is some General Motors 
material and a bit of Pontiac. The total 
effect of Bug Eyed Monster was 
encouraged in a patronizing sort of way. 

The sex symbol is, as so often happens 
in the ads, engaged in a display of 
affection for the vehicle. She is constructed 
from two main elements - the Exquisite 
Form Bra diagram and Voluptua's lips. It 
often occurred to me while I was working 
on the painting that this female figure 
evoked a faint echo of the 'Winged Victory 
of Samothrace'. The response to the 
allusion was, if anything, to suppress it. 
Marinetti's dictum 'a racing car ... is 
more beautiful than the Winged Victory of 
Samothrace' made it impossibly corny. In 
spite of a distaste for the notion it 
persists. 

The setting of the group is vaguely 
architectural. A kind of showroom in the 
International Style represented by a token 
suggestion of Mondrian and Saarinen. 
One quotation from Marcel Duchamp 
remains from a number of rather more 
direct references which were tried. There 
are also a few allusions to other paintings 
by myself. 

{Architectural Design 1958) 



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19 

Study for 'Hommage a Chrysler Corp. 

1957 

20 

Study for 'Hommage a Chrysler Corp. 

1957 

26 

Hommage a Chrysler Corp. 

(version for line reproduction) 

1958 

21 

Hommage a Chrysler Corp. (a) 

1957 

22 

Hommage a Chrysler Corp. (b) 
1957 

23 

Hommage a Chrysler Corp. 

1957 



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For the Finest Art try - POP 



In much the way that the invention of 
photography cut away for itself a chunk 
of art's prerogative - the pictorial 
recording of visual facts - trimming the 
scope of messages which Fine Art felt to 
lie within its true competence, so has 
popular culture abstracted from Fine Art 
its role of mythmaker. The restriction of his 
area of relevance has been confirmed by 
the artist with smug enthusiasm so that 
decoration, one of art's few remaining 
functions, has assumed a ridiculously 
inflated importance. 

It isn't surprising, therefore, to find that 
some painters are now agog at the 
ability of the mass entertainment machine 
to project, perhaps more pervasively than 
has ever before been possible, the classic 
themes of artistic vision and to express 
them in a poetic language which marks 
them with a precise cultural date stamp. 

It is the Playboy 'Playmate of the month' 
pull-out pin-up which provides us with 
the closest contemporary equivalent of the 
odalisque in painting. Automobile body 
stylists have absorbed the symbolism 
of the space age more successfully 
than any artist. Social comment is left to 
comic strip and TV. Epic has become 
synonymous with a certain kind of film 
and the heroic archetype is now buried 
deep in movie lore. If the artist is not to 
lose much of his ancient purpose he may 
have to plunder the popular arts to 
recover the imagery which is his rightful 
inheritance. 

(Gazer/e No 1 1961) 



In the American magazine Industrial 
Design, which has an annual review of 
automobile styling, the analysis of the '57 
Buick ended with: The driver sits at the 
dead calm center of all this motion: hers 
is a lush situation.' The painting derives 
from this text. It was a problem of 
composition in terms of the finest art as 
well as an essay into a new ideology. 
Shallow relief was applied to convey 
something of the pressed steel quality of 
automobile bodies: it was sprayed and 
sanded to a car finish. The idea of using 
relief emerged from an etching done at 
the same time - a hole cut in the plate 
produces an embossed area in the print. 

(Hanover Gallery catalogue 1 964) 



27 

Hers is a lush situation 

1958 

24 

Study for 'Hers is a lush situation' 

1957 

25 

Study for 'Hers is a lush situation' 

1957 

53 

Text for Hers is a lush situation' 

1963 



29 



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30 



An exposition of '$he' 



In an old Marx Bros, film (and this is the 
only memory I have of it) Groucho utters 
the phrase 'Women in the home' and the 
words have such power that he is 
overcome: he breaks the plot to deliver a 
long monologue directed straight at the 
camera. Sentiment is poured towards the 
audience and is puddled along with 
devastating leers and innuendos. This 
vague recollection of Groucho was 
revived when I began to consider the 
frequency with which advertising men are 
faced with the problem of projecting the 
with, image. 'Women in the home' was 
a possible title for '$he,' which is a sieved 
reflection of the ad man's paraphrase of 
the consumer's dream. 

Art's Woman in the '50s was anachronistic 
- as close to us as a smell in the drain; 
bloated, pink-crutched, pin-headed 
and lecherous; remote from the cool 
woman image outside fine art. There she 
is truly sensual but she acts her sexuality 
and the performance is full of wit. 
Although the most precious of adornments, 
she is often treated as just a styling 
accessory. The worst thing that can happen 
to a girl, according to the ads, is that she 
should fail to be exquisitely at ease in her 
appliance setting - the setting that now 
does much to establish our attitude to 
woman in the way that her clothes alone 
used to. Sex is everywhere, symbolized in 
the glamour of mass-produced luxury — 
the interplay of fleshy plastic and smooth, 
fleshier metal. 










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28 

Study for '$he' 
1958 

29 

Study for '$he' 

1958 and 69 

30 

Study for '$he' 

1958 

31 

Toastuum 
1958 

32* 
$he 
1958-61 



32 



Girlie pictures were the source of 'Pin-up'; 
not only the sophisticated and often 
exquisite photographs in Playboy 
magazine, but also the most vulgar and 
unattractive to be found in such pulp 
equivalents as Beauty Parade. All the 
paintings have references to fine art 
sources as well as Pop — in this case 
there are passages which bear the marks 
of a close look at Renoir. 

R B Kitaj is liable to assemble 
disconcertingly disparate styles in his 
paintings (an extreme case is 'certain 
forms of association neglected before'). 
He has said of these jumps that they are. 
among other things, 'a change of pace.' 
Mixing idioms is virtually a doctrine in 
'Pin-up' and other paintings seen here — 
less perhaps to change pace than to 
preserve the identity of different sources; 
though a diversifying of language is, I like 
to think, a mutual objective. 

(Hanover Gallery catalogue 1964) 



There were five preliminary sketches for 
'Pin-up' which show a slow accumulation 
of the features that make up the design of 
the final painting. The habit of blotting out 
failings with white gouache often helped 
to determine the composition in a positive 
sense. For example the center of the 
figure was obliterated in one drawing so 
when rehashing the theme the effaced 
area was retained as a kind of negative 
form. It wasn't until the gap between the 
breasts and the knees loomed large while 
painting the big version that I was forced 
to return to the problem and developed a 
solution in the drawn and collaged study 
of the bra and breasts. 

(Whitworth Gallery catalogue 1972) 



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33 



33 

Pin-up sketch I 

1960 

34 

Pin-up sketch II 

1960 

35 

Pin-up sketch III 

1960 

36 

Pin-up sketch IV 

1960 

37 

Pin-up sketch V 

1960 

38 

Study for 'Pin-up' 

1961 

39 

Pin-up 

1961 




34 




35 





41 

Glorious Techniculture 

1961-64 

40' 

Sketch for 'Glorious Techniculture' 

1961 



The main elements of 'Glorious 
Techniculture' were these: A portion of a 
photograph of New York at night from a 
dress fashion feature in Lile magazine. 
The three-ring pump agitator of the 
Frigidaire washing machine is a motif 
I have been trying to place fora long time; 
it has a strangely architectural quality 
for me - Chinese pagoda or, upside 
down, a mixture of Lyons' Corner House 
and Frank Lloyd Wright. The agitator is 
placed next to a black line derived from 
a diagrammatic cross-section of the 
General Motors Corvair engine; the 
diagram shows the cooling duct with 
arrows indicating airflow over the finned 
cylinders; it is a symmetrical form of 
which I used only one side, substituting 
the agitator for the fan. The architectural 
analogy here was the Bucky Fuller 
suspended circular house. The place that 
might have been occupied by the 
cylinders, if they had been there, is given 
in the picture to a cabin with a bride inside 

- a bride for no other reason than that the 
figure was the right scale to collage directly 
and the windswept veil gave an interesting 
reinforcement of the active core of the 
painting. The cabin, which looks like that of 
an American saloon car (an architecture 
of technology parallel is obvious), is 
inserted into the profile of a rifle. Guns 
and Hunting is a branch of Pop mythology 

- symbol of the West, the great outdoors; 
in an urban context violence, gangsterism 
and one of the best-loved childrens' toys. 
The two 'knights' result from sticking a 
complete cross-section of a car engine 
down on the panel and then painting out 
certain parts. What was left turned out to 
be a stern little robotic spaceman and 
another figure jumping oddly to the 
commands of the first. The thing the little 
one is bouncing on is freely taken from a 
Corning Glass prismatic lens for airfield 
illumination. The lens takes a position 
relative to the baroque-looking profile 
underneath it that a sound hole would 
occupy in a guitar. Indeed, the profile is 
that of an electronic guitar used by Tony 
Conn, whose name is inscribed on it with 
string, similarly written on the picture. 
Tony Conn's guitar is to the Spanish guitar 
what this picture is to the Cubist still life. 

(Architectural Design 1961) 

The above was written before the original 
8ft x 4ft painting was cut in half. The top 
was discarded and the bottom reworked. 



36 



Exteriors of cars had been dealt with in 
two paintings. A car interior in an 
advertisement showing dashboard and 
steering column invited a logical follow up. 
In the confined space of the car, the 
camera inevitably demonstrated extreme 
effects of blurred focus. This was one of 
the earliest manifestations of a continuing 
interest in photographic qualities and 
their representation in paint. 

(Whitworth Gallery catalogue 1972) 



The first sketch for 'AAH!' antedates the 
painting by some years — it was made 
at the same time as the car pictures. 
When I began work on the panel, the 
subject became plainly erotic. Much of 
the hedonism comes from the lush visual 
pleasure that only photographic lenses 
can provide. A saga developed from an 
accumulation of images so that the 
original theme of car interior became 
subordinate to the overall sensuality. 

(Hanover Gallery catalogue 1964) 





42 

Study for 'AAH !' 

1961 and 68 

54 

'AHHi' in perspective 

1963 (second version 1973) 

43 

AAH' 

1962 



37 




Urbane Image 



Chrysler Vice-President Virgil Exner 
models the plump detailing of the sleek 
'flight sweep' - lining the crustacean 
recesses of Plymouth's headlamp hood 
with mirror-like chrome and giving it a 
dark brilliance that even Life and Look 
can't press onto the pages of their multi- 
million editions. Ad-artists create a 
language of signs for chrome - flick and 
flourish to simulate the sparkle of 
fashioned metal. GM Vice-President Harley 
Earl promotes a jet technology to 
condition the reflexes of auto consumers 
while Saarinen builds status symbols for 
the Detroit plant. 

Howard Hughes/Hawks found their 
answer at the drawing board when they 
engineered Jane Russell's bra to set a 
trend in bosoms later catered to by 
Exquisite Form. Aware of the technological 
background of their product, Exquisite 
Form presents it as a solution to a 
suspension problem 'with or without 
floating action.' The loaded, tight shapes 
that feed Exner and Earl are brought full 
CirclOform by the ad-man (who knows his 
iconography), so models must learn the 
caress appropriate to the smooth BEM 
which their charms must help to sell. 

As round, firm and fully packed as any, 
Voluptua shapes her lips for a goodnight 
kiss that sends us off to a dreamy TV 
fantasy of the sexiest machine that ever 
took us from point a to point b. 

In slots between towering glass slabs 
writhes a sea of jostling metal, fabulously 
wrought like rocket and space probe, like 
lipstick sliding out of a lacquered brass 
sleeve, like waffle, like Jello. Passing 
UNO. NYC, NY, USA (point a), Sophia 
floats urbanely on waves of triple-dipped, 
infra-red-baked pressed steel. To her rear 
is left the stain of a prolonged breathy 
fart, the compounded exhaust of 300 
brake horses. 

At home (point b) - Vikky (The Back, by 
arrangement with Milton Weiss) Dougan's 
archetypal presence dominates even the 
Cadillac-pink RCA Whirlpool refrigerator/ 
freezer, with automatic defrosting and 
automatic filling of ice-tray functions: 
major appliance if ever there was one. 
Westinghouse, Hoover, Singer, GE - 
grand new artificers - bring your bright 
fabrications in homage to her. Heap your 
gift-wrapped minor miracles (dotted line 



shows trajectory of the toast from the 
vacuum cleaner: see illustration) to her 
command that she remain supremely 
housewife-mother-cupcake. 

This month's playmate, however, is Miss 
June. Take a girl - there are plenty of 
good amateurs and in any case it helps to 
put in a biographical note - Miss Wells is 
a teller at the Chase Bank's Denver 
branch, or, a stylist at Young and 
Rubicam (you mightcome across her any- 
where) just so you know she can afford 
her own flat, spends all her income on 
clothes (worn offstage), and is on the 
lookout for a meal ticket to 21 . She's 
built (37, 22, 36), sociable (show a 
record player and a couple of highballs), 
intelligent (use a record sleeve with Zen 
in the title), available through the Bell 
system (Princess handset) and has 
friendly eyes that come out green on 
Ektachrome. From there on it's just a 
matter of technique, a photographer with 
his heart in his job, a good retoucher 
(Abstract Expressionist when he's not 
working) and the best blockmaking and 
printing facilities that money can buy 
concentrating all their efforts on pinky 
tints which filter out over bed and sand 
and walls and carpet and record sleeve 
and towel till even the words are made 
flesh. 

In real close; what's in the finder? With a 
long-focus lens opened up to f2, depth 
of field is reduced to a few millimetres 
when you're not too far from the subject. 
Definition swings in and out along a lip 
length. A world of fantasy with unique 
erotic overtones. Intimacy, trespass yet, 
on a purely visual plane. Sensuality 
beyond the simple act of penetration - a 
dizzy drop into swoonlike colored fuzz, 
clicked, detached and still, for 
appreciative analysis. Scale drifts that 
echo Van Vogt's pendulum swing of time; 
fulcrums of visual fixity that Penn engages 
with the twist of a knurled knob. 

Of course it's not all phloo - every 
picture tells a story. In this case the velvet 
gloved finger of God energizing the Isher 
weapon through the power glide lever: 
the Varaflame ejaculation being induced 
in confirmation of the Dichter dichtum 
and the reaction a comically dribbled sigh 
of ecstasy. 

We live in an era in which the epic is 
realized. Dream is compounded with 
action. Poetry is lived by an heroic 
technology. Any one of a whole range of 



hard, handsome, mature heroes like 
Glenn, Titov, Kennedy, Cary Grant, can 
match the deeds of Theseus and look as 
good, menswearwise. 

The scanned image is replacing the 
screened look in many fields today. Broad 
colored stripes add a fashionable 
sporting touch to chest and loins, though 
two-color full block numbering can project 
collegiate styling more effectively - the 
domed fiberglass helmet is, of course, a 
must for work and play. 

Metals are in. Aluminum is this century's 
color. Underwear in fine lustrous lame 
for maximum radiation protectivity with 
the riveted, or seam-welded corsage for 
external use; gun-metal, gold and plati- 
num, however, still find support among 
the smart set. The trend towards 
electronics in male accessories is on the 
upgrade for outward-looking bucks styled 
to the needs of tomorrow and the 
pleasantest present. 

Mr Universe takes his place by Miss 
World. They stand side by side, fronting 
camera, a dawn sun suffusing the sky 
with an orange glow smeared with 
puce and violet. As the lens zooms 
slowly out they recede, minute against the 
immense void of Space. He murmurs 
'Are you ready?' Shafts of golden light 
radiate from them as we await the 
immaculately dubbed response: 
'Affirmative.' 

Glossary 

Virgil Exner Chief body stylist for the 
Chrysler Corporation from 1953 until 
1961. He was primarily responsible for the 
'Forward Look' introduced by Chrysler 
in 1 956, a style in which the car sloped 
evenly from high tail fins to a low front 
end. Promoted as a 'line', in much the 
manner of Paris haute couture in the 
post-war years, it helped to reverse the 
sliding fortunes of the third largest 
automobile manufacturing organization in 
the US. The line is best represented by 
the '57 Plymouth and Imperial models. 
Chrysler's star dipped again in '61 . 
Reorganization of the company by a new 
president found Exner among the axed 
executives. 

Flight Sweep Synonymous with the 
'Forward Look.' 

Harley Earl Head of styling department 
at General Motors. He is the designer who 
first established the concept of fashion 



39 



styling for automobiles - Earl has long 
upheld the value of 'dream car' 
development both to stimulate design 
thinking and to tease prospective markets. 

Saarinen Saarinen's contributions to the 
GM plant are among the most restrained 
and elegantly distinguished buildings of 
the period, in apparent contradiction to 
the flamboyant design approach of GM 
products. 

Howard Hughes Hollywood film 
producer/director, aviation engineer, pilot, 
playboy. Produced The Outlaw, a film 
starring Jane Russell and publicized 
largely on the proportions of the female 
lead's bust. Legend has it that Hughes 
applied his considerable skills to the 
problem of a brassiere which would add 
lift and control to his star's biggest asset. 

Howard Hawks Brilliantly gifted film 
director. He worked, uncredited, on The 
Outlaw, with Howard Hughes. 

Exquisite Form Corsetry manufacturing 
company wont to use engineering 
terminology in their advertisements. 

CirclOform Brand name of an Exquisite 
Form product. 

BEM Bug-eyed-monster in science 
fiction parlance. 

Round, firm and fully packed 'So Round, 
So Firm, So Fully Packed' was a slogan 
used in a Lucky Strike cigarette 
advertising campaign calculated to arouse 
the need for oral satisfaction. 

Voluptua Star of an American late night 
TV show, intended to send tired 
businessmen amiably off to sleep, in 
which performers, cameramen and 
technical crew all wore pajamas. Some 
use has been made in 'Homage a 
Chrysler Corp' of all the above-mentioned 
products, personalities and ideas. 
Voluptua contributed the lips. 

UNO The United Nations Organization 
building appears as a reflection in the 
windscreen in 'Hers is a lush situation.' 

Vikky Dougan 'Starlet' who achieved 
notoriety as a model for backless dresses 
and swimming costumes. 

Milton Weiss Vikky Dougan's publicist 
and designer of one of her most 
successful stunt dresses. 

RCA Whirlpool A Whirlpool ad provided 
the overall scheme of '$he.' 



Grand new artificers An oblique 
reference to Joyce's description of 
Daedalus as 'grand old artificer.' 

Playmate Playboy magazine contains a 
three page pull-out colour pin-up in each 
issue. She is referred to as Miss April/ 
May/June (according to publication date), 
Playmate of the Month. 

Retoucher Most advertising photographs 
are retouched by artists; meticulous work 
which demands a high degree of 
illustrative skill. Dick Smith tells me that 
he has a friend in New York, an Abstract 
Expressionist painter, who earns his living 
by retouching. 

Flesh The color which pervades the 
whole of a Playboy pin-up, background as 
well as figure, perhaps because the main 
concern, at a purely technical level, is 
with the representation of these hues. This 
theory prompted the flesh-colored 
ground of 'Pin-up.' 

Depth of field Distance within which the 
subject is in acceptably sharp focus. A 
function of aperture and distance of focal 
plane from lens. The closer the plane of 
focus is to the camera the shallower the 
depth of field will be for any given 
aperture. 'AAHI' is concerned very much 
with the phenomenon of photographic 
definition. 

Van Vogt A master of the science fiction 
genre; his speciality is the control of 
varying time scales. One of his novels is 
called The Weapon Shops of Isher. A 
cover to the paperback edition depicts his 
weapon - used in 'AAH 1 ' 

Penn (Irving) Photographer noted for his 
work in Vogue. 

Cod Almighty being. Mythical creator of 
the Universe. The story of Man's creation 
is pictured by artist Michelangelo as God 
touching the finger of Man-myth Adam 
with his own, thus bestowing life. 

Isher weapon Lethal appliance 
described in Van Vogt's novel. It has a 
remarkable built-in safety factor - it will 
not function as an instrument of offence. 

Varaflame A Ronson lighter fancifully 
associated by me with the Isher weapon. 

Dichter Ernest Dichter PhD, consumer 
products psychologist. Working as 
motivation research consultant for Ronson 
he explained that flame is a sexual symbol 
and that their advertising should express 
this. 



Scanned image Scanning, the technique 
of breaking down visual information into 
simple variations of intensity of a point of 
light which passes across and down the 
image in a series of parallel lines in much 
the way that the reader's eyes are now 
scanning these lines of text, provides a 
significant proportion of our present visual 
intake and this proportion is bound to 
increase. Not only is TV reliant upon this 
fundamental mode of seeing and 
recreating an image but the means of 
reproduction of half-tone images must 
now employ the method to an increasing 
extent. 

Screened look Screening, the older 
process of rendering multi-toned visual 
information into usable components for 
reproduction purposes, utilizes a device 
which produces a grid of small black dots 
varying in size dependent on the values 
of light and dark in the subject. The image 
is seen all at once but broken down into 
units 

Theseus Heroic figure of Greek 
mythology who enacted many glorious 
deeds. The group of pictures which carries 
the title 'Towards a definitive statement on 
the coming trends in men's wear and 
accessories' (a label derived from a 
heading to a Playboy male fashion 
section) attempts to represent our 
mid-century myths, dreams and exploits 
in terms which have Hellenic 
correspondences. 

Mr Universe A title competed for 
annually by human males (at present only 
Earthmen) who are well endowed with 
muscles and the ability to assume certain 
highly stylized poses. 

Miss World A title competed for annually 
by human females. Each contender repre- 
sents her own nation's ideal of physical 
beauty. 

Altirmative Yes. Somewhat forced 
expression of need to conclude on a 
grandly positive rhetorial note. An art of 
affirmatory intention isn't necessarily 
uncritical; though I affirm that, in the 
context of our present culture, it will be 
non-Aristotelian. While value judgements 
are not made, the value of human thought 
and life and love may still be upheld - 
together with a desperate hope for their 
corny future. 

(Living Arts 2 1963) 



40 



As was the case with 'Hers is a lush 
situation' the idea for 'Towards a 
definitive statement on the coming trends 
in men's wear and accessories' came 
directly from a fragment of text; in this 
case a headline from a Playboy section on 
male fashion. The Towards' was added 
to my title because I hoped to arrive at a 
definitive statement but never reached a 
point where I felt able to drop the 
tentative prefix. 

It became immediately apparent that 
fashion depends upon an occasion, 
season, time of day and, most importantly, 
the area of activity in which the wearer is 
involved. A definitive statement seemed 
hardly possible without some preliminary 
investigation into specific concepts of 
masculinity. Man in a technological 
environment (a) was the first area. Space 
research was then throwing up its early 
heroes, every freckle on Glenn's face was 
familiar to the world. J F Kennedy had 
made his incredibly moving speech 
inviting all peoples to join together in the 
great tasks awaiting mankind - the 
exploration of the stars among them. 

The sporting ambience was covered 
in (b). 

'Adonis in Y fronts' attempted to catch 
some timeless aspect of male beauty. 
Certain contours were derived from the 
'Hermes' of Praxiteles - other parts were 
from muscle man pulps. 

Each of the preceding three paintings 
contributed something to the larger 
working of the theme. It was found to 
be no more definitive than the rest. The 
panel may be hung in any orientation (a 
nul-gravity picture). One view, horizontal 
with the head on the right, is less favored. 

(Hanover Gallery catalogue 1964) 





44 

Towards a definitive statement on the 

coming trends in men's wear and 

accessories (a) sketch I 

1962 

45 

Towards a definitive statement on the 

coming trends in men's wear and 

accessories (a) sketch II 

1962 

47 

Towards a definitive statement on the 

coming trends in men's wear and 

accessories (b) sketch 

1962 

46* 

Towards a definitive statement on the 
coming trends in men's wear and 
accessories (a) 'Together let us explore 
the stars' 
1962 

48' 

Towards a definitive statement on the 

coming trends in men's wear and 

accessories (b) 

1962 




41 




1 




42 





50 

Towards a definitive statement on the 

coming trends in men's wear and 

accessories (c) Adonis in Y fronts 

1962 

49 

Towards a definitive statement on the 

coming trends in men's wear and 

accessories (c) sketch II 

1962 (remade in 1970) 

51 

Together let us explore the stars' 
1962-63 

52 

Towards a definitive statement on the 

coming trends in men's wear and 

accessories (d) 

1963 



43 







44 



A virtue of that fashionable adjunct of the 
visually oriented person of the '50s - the 
pin board - was the way it gripped certain 
things. Some images obstinately held the 
board and the mind. It was with surprise 
that I realized the number of years a trivial 
piece of advertising showing the historical 
development of the automobile tyre had 
stayed on my board. I proposed to make 
a print of the subject. It was to be an 
embossed relief, printed blind, so that the 
effect would be of the varied treads of the 
five tyres pressing up from the back of the 
paper: only in perspective. 

It would have been possible to make 
embossing blocks directly from the line- 
cut source but I thought that a little too 
easy. I determined to make a new and 
idealized perspective projection of the 
tread types which would give me the 
structure anew, and more precisely. After 
some months of work I found one evening 
that I had taken two hours to establish the 
position of five points among many 
thousands. It was clearly time to abandon 
the task. I later made a silkscreen print 
from the unfinished drawing, tracing each 
color separation, for a series to be 
published by the Institute of Contemporary 
Arts in London. A photographic 
augmentation which fitted the perspective 
scheme was added to complete the print. 

Carl Solway of EYE Editions suggested 
one evening that perhaps a computer 
could help to produce the relief print 
originally intended by making the 
perspective projection from simply 
prepared plan and elevation information. 
Computer art hasn't come up with much 
of interest in my view, despite its obvious 
attractions as a device capable of making 
new images. The aptness of the use of a 
computer to prepare a difficult projection 
(having no inherently computerish style 
but which only the computer could 
satisfactorily make without a ridiculously 
extravagant expenditure of human time 
and labor) appeals to me very much. 
The computer would be used for nothing 
more than its capability as a fast plotter of 
data, exactly its virtues for science and 
industry. The project is now completed in 
this way. 

{Whitworth Gallery catalogue 1972) 




55 

Five Tyres abandoned 

1963 

154 

Five Tyres remoulded — computer 

drawing 

1971 

57 

Study for 'Portrait of Hugh Gaitskell 

as a Famous Monster of Filmland' 

1963-70 

56 

Hugh Gaitskell as a Famous Monster 

of Filmland — sketch 

1963 

58* 

Portrait of Hugh Gaitskell as a Famous 

Monster of Filmland 

1964 



45 






Some people, seeing earlier pictures of 
mine, thought that they must be satirical. 
They felt uneasy because they couldn't 
accept a title like 'Hommage a Chrysler 
Corp.' at its face value and supposed that 
some veiled criticism was implied. The 
discomfort was all the more serious 
because of the ambivalence of the painted 
image - a lyrical compilation of an 
adman's visual language was a very soft 
kind of social comment; if that is what it 
was. But could a painter be paying 
homage to Chrysler Corporation in 1 957 
as a fine-artist in Paris at the turn of the 
century might honor a patron or another 
artist? At times I found it necessary to 
explain that neither the titles nor the 
pictures were satirical. They are intended 
to be witty but not without a certain 
affection for the institutions and social 
mores they feed upon. They are fine art 
works about popular-art phenomena. They 
are not intended to suggest that giant 
corporations, or the techniques of the mass 
media in presenting them to the public, 
are meritorious, nor are they suggesting 
that they are meretricious. I once wrote in 
an article tor Architectural Design: 'I would 
like to think of my purpose as a search for 
what is epic in everyday objects and 
everyday attitudes' and this is true still. 

Early in '62 it occurred to me that instead 
of protesting that I didn't paint satirical 



pictures I might consider painting a 
satirical picture to investigate the 
difference. If I looked for a theme which 
provoked me to righteous anger, where 
would I find it? In putting to myself the 
question 'what angers you most now?' 
I found that the answer was Hugh 
Gaitskell. 

(Unpublished typescript 1964) 

Famous Monsters of Filmland was a 
magazine then running to some twenty 
issues; it gorged on the marvellous wealth 
of stills that the movie makers leave 
behind when their films have disappeared. 

A press photograph of Gaitskell and a 
cover of FM of F showing Claude Rains in 
his make-up for The Phantom ot the 
Opera began to coalesce from the 
gathered material. The small relief panel 
was originally an oil study primed with 
metallic paint. Eye holes in the panel 
produced changing moods in the head 
when it was lying around on different 
surfaces so a disc with a fairly random 
assortment of colored papers was fixed to 
the back. This can be rotated to produce 
a series of color effects behind the eyes. 

The final painting was done on a 
photographic base; an enlargement of 
the newspaper photograph. 

(Hanover Gallery catalogue 1964) 



46 



A still from a '40s movie called Shockproot 
had a fascination that I spent some time 
analyzing. Everything in the photograph 
converged on a girl in a 'new look' 
coat who stared out slightly to right of 
camera. A very wide-angle lens must have 
been used because the perspective 
seemed distorted, but the disquiet of the 
scene was due to two other factors. It was 
a film set, not a real room, so wall surfaces 
were not explicitly conjoined; and the 
lighting came from several different 
sources. Since the scale of the room had 
not become unreasonably enlarged, as 
one might expect from the use of a wide- 
angle lens, it could be assumed that false 
perspective had been introduced to 
counteract its effect, yet the foreground 
remained emphatically close and the 
recession extreme. All this contributed 
more to the foreboding atmosphere than 
the casually observed body lying on the 
floor, partially concealed by a desk. The 
three collages 60, 61 , 62 are about this 
image of an interior space — ominous, 
provocative, ambiguous; with the lingering 
residues of decorative style that any 
inhabited space collects. A confrontation 
with which the spectator is familiar yet not 
at ease. 

(Hanover Gallery catalogue 1964) 







47 




63 

Desk 
1964 

60 

Interior study (a) 

1964 

61 ' 

Interior study (b) 

1964 

62* 

Interior study (c) 
1964 

65 

Interior II 
1964 

64 

Patricia Knight 

1964 

66 

Magic Carpets 

1964 





48 





LP T 




One result from a visit to the US in Oct '63 
was to gain a first-hand knowledge of the 
work of such painters as Warhol, 
Lichtenstein, Dine, Rosenquist and 
Oldenburg. The thing that impressed me 
was their throwaway attitude to Art - a point 
of view which the European, with his long 
tradition of the seriousness of culture 
(not even Dada was that carefree), could 
hardly achieve. 'Epiphany' is a souvenir 
of America. The button which is its source 
was bought in a seedy joke shop in 
Pacific Ocean Park. On my return it stood 
for much of what I had enjoyed in 
experiencing the States, but it also 
summed up that which I most admired in 
American art, its audacity and wit. 

(Hanover Gallery catalogue 1964) 



59 

Epiphany 
1964 

71 

Self-portrait I 

1965 (redrawn 1973) 

72 

Self-Portrait II 
1965 



49 





Two self-portrait studies were made on a 
printed layout pad used in the Time office 
in New York for cover designs. It is blank, 
except for the red frame, indications for 
data and the title. 

The pen drawn version was stolen from its 
owner some years ago so it has been 
redrawn (I still have the pad) for this 
show. As a specialist in the reconstruction 
of Duchamp, I have come to feel no 
compunction about reconstructing my 
own work. 

(June 1973) 



Photography and painting 

I've always been an old-style artist, a fine 
artist in the commonly accepted sense; 
that was my student training and that's 
what I've remained. I made abstract 
pictures at one time until, in the mid '50s, 
like a good many other painters, I began 
to move back to figuration. The return to 
nature came at second hand through the 
use of magazines rather than as a 
response to real landscape or still-life 
objects or painting a person from life. 
Somehow it didn't seem necessary to hold 
on to that older tradition of direct contact 
with the world. Magazines, or any visual 
intermediary, could as well provide a 
stimulus. 

It's a matter of gaining a wider view - an 
extension of his landscape - that makes an 
artist look to the mass media for source 
material. The Cubists had adopted a 
multiple viewpoint of their subject by 
moving around it. In the '50s we became 
more aware of the possibility of seeing the 
whole world, at once, through the great 
visual matrix that surrounds us; a 
synthetic 'instant' view. Cinema, television, 
magazines, newspapers flooded the artist 
with a total landscape and this new visual 
ambience was photographic; reportage 
rather than art photography in the main. 

There comes a moment where the painter 
can get interested in photographic quality 
as part of his medium. Artists all over the 
world began to use photography to make 
a frank transference of imagery into their 
work - as Rauschenberg and Warhol have 
done. The directness of photographic 
techniques, through half-tone silkscreen 
for example, has made a new contribution 
to the medium of painting. In my own case 
there was a time when I felt that I would 
like to see how close to photography I 
could stay yet still be a painter in intent. 
I borrowed an image which was not 
merely a photograph but one that was 
also very stylish in that sense. The 
modifications that I made to it were 
airbrushed stains applied to the surface in 
such a way that the photographic quality 
was not disturbed, coloring it as a 
retoucher would to keep its integrity. At 
the same time there was another painting 
on which the marks were made in direct 
opposition to photographic quality. This 
was motivated by marks and comments 
made by Marilyn Monroe on prints 
submitted for her approval. Crosses or 



50 



ticks, notes for retouching, instructions to 
the photographer, even the venting of 
physical aggression by attacking the 
emulsion. It seemed interesting to take 
these as two extremes: in one case the 
photograph pure and intact( at least 
ostensibly so) and the other an outrageous 
interference of the handmade mark in 
savage conflict with the photograph. It's 
an old obsession of mine to like to see 
conventions mix - I like the difference 
between a diagram and a photograph 
and a mark which is simply sensuous 
paint, even the addition of real, or 
simulations of real, objects. These 
multiply the levels of meaning and ways 
of reading. The more recent uses that 
I've made of photography stem from 
the possibilities inherent in these two 
works, 'Still-life' and 'My Marilyn.' 

Some of our attitudes to the camera arc, 
even now, a hundred years after its 
invention, a little naive. We tend to think 
of the photograph as being a kind of truth. 
We like to think of it as what the eyes see, 
but that can be far from the case. A 
camera is a very different optical device 
from the human eye, different in subtle 
but significant ways. For example, camera 
lenses focus on a plane and an 
undecipherable blur can sandwich this 
sharp layer. Then, the print is very often 
retouched, especially if it is to be 
reproduced. Somewhere in a process 
engraving studio, a hand modifies with 
pigments, stains and acids. Graphic artists 
are continually painting the photograph 
to transform it into a more printable image 
or to bring it closer to someone's 
preconception. Strangely enough the 
point at which art most crucially and 
excitingly meets photography is the area 
which has long been tinged with 
suspicion and acrimony. Retouching the 
photograph, even cropping the print, is 
regarded by a 'true' photographer as a 
dubious activity. Artists 'copying' 
photographs, or using them as a ground 
for a painting, are playing an even fouler 
game. The stigma attached to the use of 
photography by painters has gone (but 
not without some rear-guard action - 
there was all that fuss about photography 
and screen prints just a few years ago) 
and the ground is clear for some fruitful 
interaction. 

Since 'My Marilyn' I've made several 
paintings of people on beaches. Postcards 
have their own fascination. Usually they 



are shot at such a distance that the people 
recorded in the scene are oblivious of 
their contribution to the record. I find 
it astonishing that a flick of a shutter 
over a coating of silver emulsion can hold 
so much information about that 
milli-second of activity over half a mile of 
beach at Whitley Bay one summer's day. 
As this texture of anonymous humanity is 
penetrated, it yields more fragments of 
knowledge about individuals isolated 
within it as well as endless patterns of 
group relationships. Ultimately 
enlargement takes us into unreadable 
abstract clumps of silver halides. 

The fascination that photographs hold for 
me lies in this allusive power of the 
camera's imagery. The attempts of some 
abstract artists to create paintings or 
objects without external references 
(however admirable the results) seems to 
me to be not only futile but retrograde; like 
a race to see how slowly the participants 
can move. I marvel that marks and shapes, 
simple or complex, have the capacity to 
enlarge consciousness, can allude back 
to an ever widening history of mankind, 
can force emotional responses as well as 
aesthetic ones and permit both internal 
and external associations to germinate 
the imagination of the spectator. 
I suppose that I am much more concerned 
with ideas about paint than with paint for 
its own sake, or even a subject for its own 
sake. The reason for becoming involved 
with Bing Crosby in the painting called 
I'm dreaming of a white Christmas' was 
not a nostalgic affection for Bing Crosby 
films, rather it was that the painting was 
quite demanding technically and it also 
offered some metaphysical exploitation. 
It follows from a Duchamp idea about 
everything having an opposite. Scientific 
thought is now being directed at the 
notion that every particle has a negative 
particle and that a non-world exists 
adjacent to our world; that this world has 
as real an existence, in an opposite phase, 
as the one we experience. It's nice to be 
able to see a ready-made token of that 
reversal of our normal perception in the 
form of a photographic negative. The 
painting of a negative color frame from 
a Bing Crosby film can take us a little 
closer, in a symbolic way, to that 
looking-glass world. The idea that Bing in 
negative becomes racially reversed is 
amusing too (the song from the film 
makes an apt title for the painting) - he 
becomes an American Negro. His clothes, 



color reversed, are more bizarre; he 
wears a black shirt and a white hat, a 
yellow cardigan and a light blue coat - 
unlikely for Bing. The change is such that 
you begin to think of him as a much more 
racy figure. The exterior seen through a 
window is lurid too, the blue sky is orange, 
the green trees red. This is disturbing 
but not exactly surrealistic. In many 
ways the scene becomes that much more 
magical and mysterious and beautiful and 
more rewarding when meditated upon 
than the scene as we normally know it. 
I would like to think that what I am doing 
is questioning reality. Photography is just 
one way, the most direct we know, by 
which physical existence can modulate a 
two-dimensional surface. Painting has 
long been concerned with the paradox of 
informing about a multi-dimensional 
world on the limited dimensionality of a 
canvas. Assimilating photography into the 
domain of paradox, incorporating it into 
the philosophical contradictions of art is 
as much my concern as embracing its 
alluring potential as media. It's necessary, 
at the moment, to pry out a whole new 
set of relationships. After all, photography 
(perhaps we should establish a broader 
base and think of what I am talking about 
as lens-formulated images whatever the 
chemistry or electronics involved) is still 
fairly new compared with the long 
tradition of painting and there are many 
adjustments in thinking yet to be made. 

[Studio International 1969) 



The process of enlargement inevitably 
introduces doubts about the veracity of 
what we call photographic. In taking us 
nearer the carrier of the image we become 
more aware of its characteristics as 
medium. The type of emulsion, half-tone 
screens, the intervention of a retoucher's 
hand, all become more apparent and 
contribute more to the quality of an image 
which on a different scale may be 
unquestionably photographic. The source 
of the painting of Trafalgar Square was a 
small detail from a postcard. By 
maintaining and exaggerating the 
'impressionistic' qualities of the 
magnified fragment these inferences were 
developed stylistically. 

[Studio International 1 969) 



51 




79 

Trafalgar Square 

1965-67 

78 

Trafalgar Square - study 

1965 




52 



'Landscape' comes directly out ot the 
Marilyn idea about hand-made marks 
on photographs. It was painted from a 
postcard which was remarkable only for 
the fact that color had been applied to 
each copy by hand (I have two copies, 
each a little different). There was no 
aggression, just a sheer abandoned 
dabbing on of tints in arbitrary haste. 
I was fortunate enough to find the original 
negative in the library of the biggest aero 
survey company and ordered an eight ft 
long print of the area seen in the postcard. 
'Painting' consisted of adding many 
different types of marks to the print: 
starting with a loose filling-in of fields 
with tints and on to marks which bear no 
relationship to the photograph at all. 
Trees in one part are fabricated from 
paint-soaked sponge, some tiny houses 
are made in false perspective from balsa 
wood. 

{Studio International 1969) 



A postcard of the beach at Whitley 
Bay has produced several variations. 
A medium-sized painting, a print on a 
photographic base, a postcard, a one-off 
multiple and the cover for the March 1969 
issue of Studio International. 

The postcard is itself a photographic print 
without an intruding reproduction screen. 
It was examined in many degrees of 
enlargement for 'People' dated 1 965-66. 
This is one of a series of explorations into 
the legibility of a photographic image 
degraded by enlargement. Photographs 
such as this heavily populated beach in 
the north of England show a random 
sample of humanity. When broken down 
and analyzed, they provide an incredible 
amount of information about the 
individuals and their activity. There is, 
however, a breaking point, a stage where 
the grain of the emulsion is too large to 
absorb the imprint of the form. It was a 
search for this moment of loss that 
became the true subject of the series. 

Whitley Bay I' and 'II' are tinted 
photographic prints. The first is an 
enlargement from another Whitley Bay 
postcard (this had a half-tone 
reproduction screen) and the second is a 
photograph of the same beach taken by 
myself. 

At about the time of the 'People' painting 
I became habituated to taking 
photographs of people on beaches. One 
holiday snap color transparency of a bay 
on a Greek island has been used 



extensively. Most of these are entitled 
'Bathers,' sometimes the full 35 mm frame, 
sometimes minute details. 'Bathers II' is a 
photographic color print on a canvas 
base. Everything but the people is painted 
out with an impasto that imitates the 
perspective gradation of the sea. What is 
left informs more about the missing 
seascape than the people. 

(Compiled from: Studio International 1 969, 
Whitworth Gallery catalogue 1972) 




53 













I 









Sk : :< : > 



77 

Landscape 

1965-66 

75 

Whitley Bay 

1965 

73 

Whitley Bay I 

1965 

74 

Whitley Bay II 

1965 



i« 










54 



108 

People multiple (1/1) 

1968 

76 

People 

1965-66 

107 

People/Popel (in collaboration with 

Dieter Rot) 

1968 

117 

People again 

1969 




55 




i 



%, 





% ' 




56 




. "■ , "*r-_ J .-i,«aBtsiMP 



93* 

Bathers I 
1966-67 

95 

Bathers II 
1967 



Notes on Photographs 



Photography is a medium with its own 
conventions though we tend to treat its 
products as a truth less flexible than 
hand-done art. Yet photographs of a 
given scene can be as unlike each other 
as each might be from a painting of that 
scene. Choice of lens and control of focus 
through aperture selection can extract 
widely differing images from a single 
viewpoint. Photographs are often 
'retouched,' especially when used for 
reproduction. 

In fact, a distinction between camera work 
and painting hardly operates in a good 
deal of photographic magazine and 
advertising material - whether it be 
retouching to enforce or modify 



information or handcraft in the making of 
blocks for printing: one reason for the 
high cost of color reproduction is the 
amount of skilled hand treatment required' 
in color processes. The marriage of brush 
and lens can be intriguing. The 'artworks' 
shown here scratch around in this 
territory, exploring possible relationships 
of painted marks and marks resulting from 
the interaction of light and photosensitive 
emulsions. 

I had often had recourse to photographic 
enlargements for collaged details in 
earlier paintings. The photographic aspect 
of these contributions to the work was not. 
in itself, an objective - sometimes it was 
necessary to make an enlargement from 
an element that would have been too 
small in its magazine source for direct 
use. Occasionally there were advantages; 



57 



J W 






A. 



h 



a 
* i 



*L 



t « 



%jstoi.*% * tf* 



1 j' t 



• i 



• s. 



+ ^ * 



* ♦ 



# 



y. 



< 



•i 



to be gained from making painted 
additions over the photograph. Inevitably, 
with great scale increases from small 
originals, mechanical reproduction 
screens asserted their textural qualities. 
Sometimes photographic ideas and 
techniques (i.e. differential focus) were 
imitated with paint. 

A number of avenues have been explored 
since then. 'Still-life' does as little as can 
be to interfere with the photographic 
essence of the original. The application of 
color doesn't disturb the integrity of the 
photograph - it is applied with an 
airbrush, the normal tool of the photo 
retoucher. 

'My Marilyn' is at another extreme. Marilyn 
Monroe demanded that the results of 
photographic sessions be submitted to 



her for vetting before publication. She 
made indications, brutally and beautifully 
in conflict with the image, on proofs 
and transparencies to give approval or 
reject; or suggestions for retouching that 
might make it acceptable. After her death 
some were published with her markings - 
a batch by Bert Stern in Eros, others by 
George Barris. The aggressive obliteration 
of her own image has a self-destructive 
implication that her death made all the 
more poignant; there is also a fortuitous 
narcissism for the negating cross is also 
the childish symbol for a kiss. 'My Marilyn' 
starts with her signs and elaborates the 
graphic possibilities these suggest. 

'Landscape' spans these extremes in one 
picture. There are painted marks unrelated 
to the subject; in other places the 
application of color amounts to a simple 



phototint job. The source of the painting is 
a postcard. Small areas of postcards were 
used for 'Whitley Bay' and Trafalgar 
Square' to satisfy a curiosity about the 
ability of certain configurations to hold a 
thin dilution of human personality. 
Somehow these fractionated 
representations, grossly deteriorated 
through magnification and adulterated by 
processing for reproduction retain a 
contact with, and power to evoke, the 
bodies that originated them. 'People' 
touches the fringe of that perception, the 
shallow edge between recognition and 
abstraction lies in the middle of the panel. 
'Trafalgar Square' lets the rich visual 
qualities of the degraded fragment 
provide extensions into the Impressionist 
sensuality in parallels. 

(lolas Gallery catalogue 1967) 



58 





59 



The contrast between 'Still-lite' and 'My 
Marilyn' is confirmed in their 
compositional treatment. 'Still-life' was, 
unlike all the work that preceded it (apart 
from 'Epiphany'), an entity. In the earlier 
paintings, idioms had been mixed in a 
selfconscious manner to retain the 
individuality of elements 'Still-life' was not 
composite in that way. The Marilyn 
painting was unlike older pictures in that 
there was avoidance of a unifying 
perspective. The individual shots are 
spread regularly across the panel, four 
photographs each repeated three times 
on different scales - perspective is 
respected only within each frame. The 
painting was also an excuse for a physical 
involvement with paint itself. A screen 
print with the same title arrived at similar 
plastic ends through the use of process 
photography and received no 
hand-working by me, other than masking. 

{Studio International 1969) 




68 

My Marilyn 
1965 

67 

My Marilyn (paste-up) 

1964 

70 

Still-life 

1965 




69 

Still-life 

1965 



study 



60 





I 



I 







h 



I 




^-* | 




61 



92 

Toaster 

1966-67 (reconstructed 1969) 

96 

Toaster 

1967 

136 

Toaster study I 

1969 

137 

Toaster study II 

1969 

138 

Toaster study III 

1969 



Still-life' relates to the 'readymade.' 
Whereas Duchamp's readymades were 
chosen with a deliberate avoidance of 
concern with the aesthetic merits of the 
object, 'Still-life' takes a highly stylized 
photograph of an example of high style in 
consumer goods to raise the question: 
'Does the neutrality of Duchamp or the 
studied banality, even vulgarity, of the 
subject matter in most American Pop 
significantly exclude those products of 
mass culture which might be the choice 
of a NY Museum of Modern Art 'Good 
Design' committee? (This was a factor also 
in the use of the Guggenheim Museum 
as a theme for art). 

By the time I made 'Toaster' the habit of 
working a print simultaneously with a 
painting was well established. The print 
on the toaster theme is less a version 
than a natural corollary of it. My interest 
in process, aesthetic or technical, had led 
me to make a series of studies and reliefs 
which echoed, through analogy in 
painter's terms, the design and 
construction of a building. Similarly, the 
'Toaster' painting equates with the 
appliance, and the print metaphors the 
public relations vehicle for it. The text is an 
important part of this work not only for its 
visual quality (conjunctions of word and 
image are fundamental to the manner of 
presentation in the field depicted) but in 
the way it provides information and tunes 
the aesthetic response as only the 
explicitness of words can do. The text was 
not written by me but was compiled and 
adapted from Braun advertising 
brochures. 

The 'Documenta' print, 'The critic laughs,' 
was initiated by a 'readymade' object, or 
to be more precise in our Duchampian 
terminology a 'readymade assisted.' It is 
an association of two mass produced 
objects - a Braun electric toothbrush and 
a giant-sized set of teeth made from sugar 
(a confection to be found in the English 
seaside resort, Brighton, which 
exemplifies the darker side of British 
humor). This conjunction immediately 
reminded me of Jasper Johns' 
'sculpmetal' toothbrush which carries 
molars instead of bristles. His title 'The 
critic smiles' seemed too mild for the 
grotesque shudder of electrically 
animated teeth - even 'The critic laugh's' 
doesn't quite accommodate this hysteria. 

The electric toothbrush and vibrating 
sugar teeth were photographed with the 



help of Euan Duff. A Kodacolor print 
followed and was heavily retouched. From 
this came an offset litho print, laminated 
to regain the photographic character, to 
which additional hand-painted marks were 
applied. Thus there were three possible 
points at which paint might intrude: 
on the object itself, on the photographic 
print, and on the offset litho print. 
Sugar teeth are a little unhygienic for the 
permanent needs of art. They 'sweated' in 
certain weather conditions and began to 
crystalize and crumble away with time. 
They are also a little heavy for the small 
motor. Hans Sohm of Stuttgart, the great 
archivist of Fluxus and Happenings 
documentation (also a dentist), made an 
excellent model of the sugar teeth in 
dental plastic - chemically inert and 
lighter. 

The laminated offset-litho version of the 
subject is, stylistically, in the nature of 
promotional material for the product. 
Multiple editioning of the object is an 
obvious development. As with all consumer 
products, packaging and presentation 
posed subsequent problems: to be solved 
by the design of a case, styled, and made, 
in the manner of the box for the Braun 
'sixtant' electric razor. Product, package 
and promotional matter is the cycle of the 
consumer goods industries. Nothing in 
my experience, and practice, of art 
suggests that this same cycle does not 
apply to that category of object that we 
label 'art.' 

At the time of writing the last paragraph 
I had not realized that an instruction book 
and guarantee card would be necessary 
to complete the analogue - of course, 
art usually comes without a guarantee. 

(Compiled from: lolas Gallery catalogue 
1967, Studio International 1989, Whitworth 
Gallery catalogue 1972, Rene Block 
Gallery catalogue 1972, Studio Marconi 
catalogue 1972) 



62 







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101 

The critic laughs 

1968 

148 

The critic laughs — case 

1971 

159 

Trade Mark 

1972 

160 

The critic laughs — illustration 

1972 

147 

The critic laughs 

1971-72 



63 



64 



The 'Solomon R Guggenheim' is a big 
subject - at least in the sense that it has 
provoked a larger batch of work from 
me than any other I have tackled (but, 
perhaps happily, fewer words). There are 
ten drawings, a screen print, six large 
fiberglass reliefs and three smaller 
vacuum formed multiples. 

(Whitworth Gallery catalogue 1972) 







65 




81* 

The Solomon R Guggenheim - study 

1965 

84 

The Solomon R Guggenheim - 

working drawing 

1965 

80 

The Solomon R Guggenheim — 

architect's visual 

1965 

82 

The Solomon R Guggenheim — 

drawing I 

1965 

83 

The Solomon R Guggenheim - 

drawing II 

1965 

85 

The Solomon R Guggenheim (Black 

and White) 

1965-66 

86 - 

The Solomon R Guggenheim 

(Neapolitan) 

1965-66 




66 






91 • 

The Solomon R Guggenheim — 4 studies 

for Spectrum' 

1966 

90 

The Solomon R Guggenheim (Spectrum) 

1965-66 

94 

Study for The Solomon R Guggenheim' 

1967 



67 





68 





87 

The Solomon R Guggenheim (Black) 

1965-66 

89 

The Solomon R Guggenheim (Metalflake) 

1965-66 



The Solomon R Guggenheim (Gold) 
1965-66 



69 




70 





V 



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97 

I'm dreaming of a white Christmas — 

sketch 

1967 

98 

I'm dreaming of a white Christmas — 

study 

1967 

99 

I'm dreaming of a white Christmas — 

working drawings for screen print 

1967 

118 

I'm dreaming of a white Christmas 

1969 

100 

I'm dreaming of a white Christmas 

1967-68 



71 




While working on the painting of this 
subject I made a negative color 
photographic print to help in the 
assessment of color. I did a little work on 
it with sprayed dyes and other markings. 
Over the next few months it became 
evident that the color was deteriorating 
considerably as a result of eposure to 
ultraviolet in sunlight. Being loath to lose 
the print (for I had come to regard it as a 
work in its own right) I began to investigate 
the possibility of repeating it in a more 
permanentform. A photographic company 
in Hamburg with a dye transfer department 
allowed me to spend some time in the 
workshops with their technicians to see 
what the process had to offer. I made six 
copies of this version of 'I'm dreaming' to 
spread the high production costs. I might 
have made more were it not for the fact 



that the desired result required a great 
deal of hand retouching of each print; 
work done in the specialized studio by 
highly skilled experts. 

(Whitworth Gallery catalogue 1972) 



72 



In the mainstream of Western painting 
(since the Greeks anyway) it has been 
taken for granted that a painting is to be 
experienced as a totality seen and 
understood all at once before its 
components are examined. Some 
twentieth-century artists questioned this 
premise. Certain works by Paul Klee make 
most sense when scanned like a poem or 
a page in a comic book. Duchamp's 'Large 
Glass' reveals its quality with two separate 
components - the 'Glas' and the written 
notes which refer to it. The manner of 
apprehending an essentially visual work 
is often a concern of mine. 'My Marilyn' 
requires to be read partially by cross 
referencing within the picture. 'Toaster,' 
with its text, approaches the problem 
differently. 'Swingeing London 67' 
investigates the subject first at the level of 
pure information. The 'poster' is an 
application of the principle of providing the 
factual and psychological background in a 
form which can best present a multitude of 
small nuances of indeterminate matter. 
A major difficulty with painting is that the 
very nature of the medium demands a 
degree of resolution in the formal 
rendering. The point is pressed home in 
the 'poster' because it is apparent that the 
compilation of seemingly factual reports 
is full of contradictions. Form and color 
are elusive. Choice is arbitrary. Decision 
becomes whim. 

Situated chronologically between the 
'poster' and an etching on this subject, 
the watercolor drawing tried to reinforce 
the slightly blurred and evasive pictorial 
quality of the coarsely reproduced 
newspaper photograph which was the 
source. A few color notes were added but 
the main purpose of the drawing was to 
try to get to grips with the anatomy of the 
hands. 

In becoming firmer and more explicit the 
drawing was unwillingly removed from the 
documentary language of its source into 
an arty stylization. The outcome of these 
conflicts was the decision to combine a 
painted quality with a superimposed 
silkscreen printing in the six versions of 
the painting subsequently completed. 

(Whitworth Gallery catalogue 1972) 



STONES: A STRONG. SWEET M 
SMELL OF INCENSE „ 

jM 4/L I Slorj of firl m » ijSwk ^ 





103 

Swingeing London 67 - source material 

1968 

104 

Swingeing London 67 — working drawing 

1968 

102 

Swingeing London 67 - sketch 

1968 

105 

Swingeing London 67 

1968 

110 

Swingeing London 67 (a) 

1968-69 

111 

Swingeing London 67 (b) 

1968-69 

112 

Swingeing London 67 (c) 

1968-69 

113 

Swingeing London 67 (d) 

1968-69 

114 

Swingeing London 67 (e) 

1968-69 




73 









74 





Robert Fraser, my swinging art dealer, 
was friendly not only with Mick Jagger 
and the Stones but also with the Beatles. 
He encouraged several of his artists to 
undertake commissions to make record 
sleeve designs and got the groups 
involved with the artists. Paul McCartney 
was taking a very active role in putting 
together the double album called The 
Beatles' and I took responsibility for the 
design of the package with Gordon 
House looking after the printing and Paul 
McCartney working with me a good deal 
of the time in the studio. 
Inside the album was a give-away 
'print.' Most of the design effort and 
expense went into this. Because the sheet 
was folded three times to bring it to the 
square shape for insertion into the album, 
the composition was interestingly 
complicated by the need to consider 
it as a series of subsidiary compositions. 

(Whitworth Gallery catalogue 1972) 



115 

Swingeing London 67 (f) 
1968-69 



109 

The Beatles 

1968 



75 



Many prints made since 'Adonis' had 
employed more than one print medium, 
and some had hand-applied additions. 
Very often prints were developed on the 
printing table, so much so that I felt the 
screen was simply offering a means of 
repeating a gesture rather than changing 
the artist's relationship with the work - 
there was still the same kind of sequential 
thinking, the print would help to generate 
itself as a drawing or a painting does. The 
activity is a dialogue between the statement 
(image) as so far established and 
consideration of that fact by the artist. 
Sometimes the screen medium seemed a 
little superfluous. Was it more difficult or 
time consuming to repeat a hand gesture 
seventy-five times than to make a screen 
and print from it seventy-five times? It 
depends on the complexity of the 
individual mark. Also, a hand-made mark 
might avoid some of the limitations of a 
printed mark; it could be less anonymous, 
richer. 

'Fashion-plate' started as a multi-media 
print to investigate different values of 
representation. The print has, of course, a 
subject but the subject certainly became 
media in the course of its execution. The 
suitability of the fashion model for an 
exploration of the relationship between 
painted mark and photograph (the theme 
of 'My Marilyn') is evident, for the 'made- 
up' model is very much a painted image 
before the photographic stage is reached; 
painting, of a sort, continues after 
photography in the process-engraver's 
work. 

There were fifteen studies for the mixed 
media print. Three of them preceded the 
first workings on the print itself and twelve 
were made on stage proofs of the print. Of 
the three earlier studies, one took on a 
resemblance to myself, or rather, to a 
remembrance of myself as a youth It 
tempted me to steer it along the lines of a 
self-portrait in drag. 

(Whitworth Gallery catalogue 1 972) 









139 

Study for 'Fashion-plate' 

1969 

119 

Fashion-plate study (a) self-portrait 

1969 

120 

Fashion-plate study (b) 

1969 

121 

Fashion-plate study (c) 

1969 




76 




122 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study I) 

1969 

123 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study II) 

1969 

124 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study III) 

1969 

125 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study IV) 

1969 

126 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study V) 

1969 

127 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study VI) 

1969 

128 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study VII) 

1969 

129 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study VIII) 

1969 

130 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study IX) 

1969 

131 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study X) 

1969 

132 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study XI) 

1969 

133 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study XII) 

1969 





77 












78 



Art in America devoted a whole issue to 
Marcel Duchamp in the year following his 
death in 1968. I was asked to contribute 
something. In my studio there was a 
stack of glass plates. When Marcel was in 
London in the summer of '68 he had 
signed these blank glasses with the 
inscription 'd'apres Marcel Duchamp.' No 
further work had been done on them at 
that time but I was moved by the sight of 
these empty glasses and their signature 
began to assume significance as a 
question. I photographed, in color, a batch 
of these glass plates and then turned the 
plates to make a similar photograph 
through the backs with the signatures 
reversed. Art in America was able to 
reproduce only one of the photographs 
instead of using two double spreads with 
the signatures backing up on the central 
pages as I had hoped. 

When the originals came back I put them 
in a double-sided hinged frame so that 
they could offer the notion of twinned 
spatial representations implying the same 
deep space from either side of a paper 
thin slab. 

(Whitworth Gallery catalogue 1972) 





79 











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116 

After Marcel Duchamp? 
1969 



106 

Picturegram 

1968 



BU 



'Get a colored postcard in the Chicago 
area of a subject in Chicago. Either get it 
yourself or, if you are worried about the 
aesthetic responsibility of choosing 
something, ask a friend to provide it. 

Take a piece of paper and cut a hole in 
it 1 " high by IV2" wide. The hole should 
be square with a corner of the paper, 1 " 
to the left of the edge and 3 A" from the 
bottom edge. Place this in the bottom 
right hand corner of the postcard. Get a 
photographer to enlarge the area of 
postcard revealed in the hole to a size of 
2'8" x 4', preferably on sensitized canvas 
but if this isn't possible have a paper print 
dry mounted on hardboard (Masonite). 

Leave 20% of the surface untouched 
black and white. Paint 40% in roughly the 
colors apparent in the postcard. Paint 
40% in complementaries of the colors 
that appear in the postcard. Either 
transparent stains or opaque colors, some 
thick, some thin; which areas are at your 
discretion.' 

(Instruction telephoned from London to 
Ed Paschke in Chicago to paint a picture 
for the 'Art by Telephone' exhibition at the 
Museum of Contemporary Art in 1969.) 




152 

Mtinchen Bordeaux 

1971 

134 

Chicago project I 

1969 

135 

Chicago project II 

1969 



81 





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140 

Kent State 

1970 

141 

Portrait of the artist by Francis Bacon - 

study I 

1970 

142 

Portrait of the artist by Francis Bacon — 

study II 

1970 

143 

Portrait of the artist by Francis Bacon - 

study III 

1970 

144 

Portrait of the artist by Francis Bacon - 

study IV 

1970 

145 

Portrait of the artist by Francis Bacon - 

study V 

1970 

146 

Portrait of the artist by Francis Bacon - 

study VI 

1970 



83 



Roy Lichtenstein showed me his new 
Polaroid camera in New York in March 
1 968, demonstrating it by taking a 
photograph of me. lain Baxter did the 
same in Vancouver later that year. I bought 
a Polaroid camera and have handed it to 
38 artist friends, so far, with a request to 
'take a photo of me.' The expectation was 
that the snapshots would not be strongly 
impressed with the personality of the 
photographer. 

In the case of Francis Bacon the Polaroid 
color print happens to be very like a 
Francis Bacon painting - accidental 
movement of both camera and subject 
produced a blurred multi-viewpoint 
image. 

I had the photograph enlarged and 
reproduced by collotype. On some proofs 
I made studies for painted additions to 
exaggerate the Francis Bacon character 
(this involved some research into the 
Bacon catalogues). Ultimately one of the 
studies was chosen, in consultation with 
Francis Bacon, and a silkscreen printing 
on the collotype was begun. 

(Whitworth Gallery catalogue 1972) 









84 











The subject derives from a group 
of Andrex advertisements. These were 
very evident in the color supplements in 
the early '60s introducing the new range 
of colored toilet papers then being 
marketed. 'Soft pink' or 'Soft blue' with 
the particular color quality suffusing the 
whole image - always that of two girls 
ambiguously posed in a forest glade. 

Nature is beautiful. Pink from a morning 
sun filters through a tissue of Autumn 
leaves. Golden shafts gleam through the 
perforated vaulting of the forest to 
illuminate a stage set-up for the Sunday 
supplement voyeur. Andrex discreetly 
presents a new color magazine range. A 
pink as suggestively soft as last week's 
blue - soft as pink flesh under an Empire 
negligee. The woodland equipped with 
every convenience. A veil of soft focus 
vegetation screens the peeper from the 
sentinel. Poussin? Claude? No, more like 
Watteau in its magical ambiguity. 

Sometimes advertisements make me wax 
quite poetical. None more so than the 
series by Andrex showing two young 
ladies in the woods. I have, on occasions, 
tried to put into words that peculiar 
mixture of reverence and cynicism that 
'Pop' culture induces in me and that I try 
to paint. I suppose that a balancing of 
these reactions is what I used to call 
non-Aristotelian or, alternatively, cool. 

(Whitworth Gallery catalogue 1972) 




Dieter Rot is currently publishing volume 
twenty of his complete works. He is the 
most prolific as well as the most brilliant 
of artists producing visually oriented 
books. He paid me the great compliment 
of dedicating his supremely literate work 
Scheisse to me. 

While working on 'I'm dreaming of a black 
Christmas' with the collotype printer in 
Stuttgart I made a drawing to test the 
extremes of gradation possible with the 
medium. Washes are difficult to print with 
any process and this study proved to me 
that collotype is the most sensitive of all 
the print media and at the same time very 
controllable. The result is dedicated to 
Dieter. 



(Whitworth Gallery catalogue 1972) 



85 




149 

Soft pink landscape — study 

1971 

153 

Soft blue landscape 

1971 

151 

Eine kleine schone Scheisse 

1971 

150 

Soft pink landscape 

1971-72 



86 




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87 





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155 

Soft pink landscape — study I 

1972 

156 

Soft pink landscape — study II 

1972 

157 

Soft pink landscape — study III 

1972 

158 

Soft pink landscape — study IV 

1972 

163 

Girl with tights down 

1972 

164 

Surprised girl 
1972 

165 

Girl surprised in the forest 

1972 

161 

Girl with skirt up 

1972 

162 

Etude pour les eaux de Miers 

1972 





88 




Propositions 

A work of art is a vehicle for the 
transmission of information concerning 
the mental, or physical, activity of an artist. 

The vehicle, or medium, need not transmit 
information (a message) - it can stand as 
a symbol tor a message. 

The work of art may be structured or not - 
it can be a concept. 

An artist can propose that his work of art 
shall be structured by someone other than 
the artist - or it can be structured by 
chance. 

Structures (and non-structures) maybe 
characterized by a style (or non-style,). 

The style of a structured (or unstructured,) 
message (or symbolic non-message,) can 
serve to identify the individuality of an 
artist. 

Art can be structured in the style ot 
another artist, either in sincere emulation 
or as ironic parody. 

A work of art is evidence that an artist has 
proposed a work of art. 

An eye witness account is evidence that 
an artist has proposed a work ot art. But 
documentary evidence (i.e. a photograph) 
is more conclusive. 

A painting is documentary evidence that 
an artist has proposed a work of art. 

(Catalyst 1971) 



Although some of my pre-Pop pictures 
may seem to the casual observer to be 
'abstract' I believe it is true to say that I 
have never made a painting which does not 
show an intense awareness of the human 
figure. In the case of earlier work it was 
the human configuration (two eyes 
situated at a certain distance from two 
mobile feet) confronting the picture that 
determined its composition. Assumptions 
about the human figure were fundamental 
to the location of elements within the 
painting and the painting's relationship to 
the viewer was prescribed. That is to say, 
one justification for the picture was its 
value as a contribution to the total 
perspective of the spectator: a candid 
demonstration of the platitudinous concept 
that a work of art does not exist without its 
audience. 

Later pictures of mine have absorbed into 
this external concern a recognition of the 
potency that representation of the human 
figure adds to this dialogue between 
image and witness. A fellow creature in 
the viewer's environment, either artificial 
(a semblance) or real, must be the 
strongest, most emotive, factor in it; he 
will command attention for no other reason 
than his figurative identification with the 
ego. The force with which this dramatis 
persona can provoke displeasure is no 
less great than its capacity to provide 
companionship or to alter the construct of 
our lives. It, another self, real or sem- 
blance, revealed or implied, will always 
be a major factor in my art. 



(Statement in response to question 'What 
kind of significance and/or importance 
does the image of the human figure have 
in your works?' put by Yoshiaki Toni from 
Tokyo 1971) 



166 

Picasso's meninas 

1973 



89 
Catalogue 



Works for which no collection is cited 
belong to the artist 

* Shown in New York only 



d'Orientation 

1952 

Oil on hardboard 

46 x63in/ 117x160cm 



17 

re Nude 

1954 

Oil on panel 

48x36in/ 122 /91.5cm 



1 

Leopold Bloom 

1949 

Pencil on paper 

22V B x15V2in/ 57.5 x 39.5cm 



Leopold Bloom ('He foresaw his pale 

body') 

1949 

Pencil and watercolor on paper 

227* x15V2in/ 57 x 39.5cm 



In Home's House 
1949 

Ink and watercolor on paper 
15x12in/38x30.5cm 



The transmogrifications of Bloom 

1949 

Pencil on paper 

21 3 /<x1572in/55x39.5cm 



Induction 

1950 

Oil on canvas 

20x16in/51x40.5cm 



Chromatic spiral 

1950 

Oil on panel 

21 x 18V2in / 53.3 x 47cm 

Collection: Mr and Mrs Benn Levy 



Particular system 

1951 

Oil on canvas 

40x50in/ 101 .5x1 27cm 

8 

Self-portrait 

1951 

Ink and wash 

9V2 x8in/ 24 x 20.5cm 



10 

After Muybridge 

1953 

Pencil and conte crayon on paper 

1 8V4 x1474in/ 46.5 x 36cm 

Collection: Reyner Banham 

11 

Sketch for 'Super-ex-position' I 

1953 

Ink and watercolor on paper 

7V 2 .. 10in / 19 -:25.5cm 

Collection: Petersburg Press, London 

12 

Sketch for 'Super-ex-position' II 

1953 

Ink and watercolor on paper 

772.:10in/ 19 •; 25.5cm 

Collection: M J Long and C St J Wilson, 

London 

13 

Study for 'Still-life?' 

1954 

Pencil, charcoal and watercolor on paper 

2074x15 3 /4in/51.5x40cm 

Collection: Christoph Vowinckel, Cologne 

14 

Still-life? 

1954 

Oil on canvas 

24x20in/61 .:51cm 

Collection: Rita Donagh 

15* 

Trainsition till 

1954 

Oil on panel 

36 ■ 48in/ 91.5 x 122cm 

Lent by The Trustees of the Tate Gallery, 

London 

16 

Study re Nude 

1954 

Watercolor and pencil on paper 

1 472 < 1 1 V 2 in / 37x29 cm 

Private Collection, New York 



18 

Just what is it that makes today's homes 

so different, so appealing? 

1956 

Collage on paper 

1074/9 3 /4in/26x25cm 

Collection: Edwin Janss, Jr, Thousand 

Oaks, California 

19 

Study for 'Hommage a Chrysler Corp.' 

1957 

Ink, gouache, collage on paper 
1 37i x872in/ 34.5x21 .5cm 
Collection: Mary Reyner Banham 

20 

Study for 'Hommage a Chrysler Corp.' 

1957 

Ink, watercolor, collage on paper 

9x13in/23/33cm 

Lent by Studio Marconi, Milan 

21 

Hommage a Chrysler Corp. (a) 

1957 

Lithograph with pastel, gouache, collage 

on paper 

14 x1972in/ 35.5 x 49.5cm 

Collection: Petersburg Press, London 

22 

Hommage a Chrysler Corp. (b) 

1957 

Lithograph with pastel, gouache, collage 

on paper 

15x21in/38x53cm 

Collection: Richard Morphet 

23 

Hommage a Chrysler Corp. 

1957 

Oil, metal foil, collage on panel 

48 x32in/ 122x81 cm 

Private Collection 

24 

Study for 'Hers is a lush situation' 

1957 

Ink, crayon, gouache, metal foil on paper 

9x14in/23x36cm 

Collection: Rita Donagh 



90 



25 

Study for 'Hers is a lush situation' 

1957 

Ink, collage, gouache on paper 

TU x1 1'/2in/1 8.5 x 29cm 

Collection: Colin St John Wilson, London 

26 

Hommage a Chrysler Corp. 

(version for line reproduction) 

1958 

Collage and ink on paper 

18V2x14V2in/47x37cm 

Collection: Mrs Marcel Duchamp 



33 

Pin-up sketch I 

1960 

Ink and gouache on paper 

1472x9in/37x23cm 

Collection: Rita Donagh 

34 

Pin-up sketch II 

1960 

Ink and gouache on paper 

14Vsx9in/37x23cm 

Collection: DrJCIadders, Krefeld, 

Germany 



41 

Glorious Techniculture 

1961-64 

Oil and collage on asbestos panel 

48x48in/122x122cm 

Collection: Eric Franck, Kusnacht, 

Switzerland 

42 

Study for 'AAH!' 

1961 and 68 

Ink and watercolor on paper 

9x14Vjin/23x37cm 

Collection: Colin St John Wilson, London 



27 

Hers is a lush situation 

1958 

Oil, cellulose, metal foil, collage on panel 

32 x48in/ 81x1 22cm 

Private Collection 



35 

Pin-up sketch III 
1960 

Ink, watercolor, gouache on paper 

14'/2x9in/37x23cm 

Collection: Andreas Vowinckel, Cologne 



43 

AAH! 

1962 

Oil on panel 

32x48in/81 x122cm 

Wasserman Family Collection 



28 

Study for 'She' 

1958 

Pencil, ink, watercolor, gouache on paper 

10 x7'/2in/ 25.5 x 19cm 

Collection: L M Asher Family 

29 

Study for '$he' 

1958 and 69 

Ink and gouache on paper 

10x7V2in/ 25.5 x 19cm 

Collection: Joseph Beuys, Dusseldorf 

30 

Study for '$he' 

1958 

Oil, watercolor, collage on paper 

9x6 3 /4in/23x17cm 

Collection: Mr and Mrs Benn Levy 

31 

Toastuum 

1958 

Ink, watercolor, aerosol paint, collage 

on paper 

17'/4x15in/44x38cm 

Collection: Mr and Mrs David Allford 

32* 

She 

1958-61 

Oil, cellulose, collage on panel 

48x31 '/sin /122x81cm 

Lent by The Trustees of the Tate Gallery, 

London 



36 

Pin-up sketch IV 

1960 

Ink, watercolor, gouache on paper 

14V2x9in/37x23cm 

Collection: Alexander Dunbar 

37 

Pin-up sketch V 

1960 

Ink, watercolor, gouache on paper 

14V2x9in/37x23cm 

Collection: John Taylor, London 

38 

Study for Pin-up' 

1961 

Ink and collage on paper 

14x10in/35.5x25.5cm 

39 

Pin-up 

1961 

Oil, cellulose, collage on panel 

48x32in/122x81cm 

Collection: Colin St John Wilson, London 

40" 

Sketch for 'Glorious Techniculture' 

1961 

Gouache, pencil, collage, photograph 

on paper 

6x6in / 15x15cm 

Collection: M J Long, London 



44 

Towards a definitive statement on the 

coming trends in men's wear and 

accessories (a) sketch I 

1962 

Pencil, gouache, collage on paper 

10x14in/25. 5x35. 5cm 

Collection: Mr and Mrs O M Lingers. 

Cologne/Berlin 

45 

Towards a definitive statement on the 

coming trends in men's wear and 

accessories (a) sketch II 

1962 

Gouache, metal foil, collage on paper 

10x14in/25.5x35.5cm 

Private Collection 

46- 

Towards a definitive statement on the 

coming trends in men's wear and 

accessories (a) 'Together let us explore 

the stars' 

1962 

Oil and collage on panel 

24x32in/61x81cm 

Lent by The Trustees of the Tate Gallery, 

London 

47 

Towards a definitive statement on the 

coming trends in men's wear and 

accessories (b) sketch 

1962 

Gouache and collage on paper 

10x14in/25.5x35.5cm 

Collection: Colin St John Wilson, London 



91 



48* 

Towards a definitive statement on the 

coming trends in men's wear and 

accessories (b) 

1962 

Oil and collage on panel 

24x32in/61x81cm 

Private Collection 

49 

Towards a definitive statement on the 
coming trends in men's wear and 
accessories (c) sketch II 

1962 (remade in 1970) 
Aerosol paint and ink on paper 
10x14in/25. 5x35. 5cm 
Collection: Dominy Hamilton 

50 

Towards a definitive statement on the 

coming trends in men's wear and 

accessories (c) Adonis in Y fronts 

1962 

Oil and collage on panel 

24x32in/61x81cm 

Collection: Dominy Hamilton 

51 

'Together let us explore the stars' 

1962-63 

Ink, gouache, collage on paper 

20x13'Ain/51 x 33.5cm 

Collection: Mrs Richard Smith 

52 

Towards a definitive statement on the 

coming trends in men's wear and 

accessories (d) 

1963 

Oil and collage, perspex relief on panel 

48x32in/122x81cm or 

32 x48in/ 81x1 22cm 

Collection: Eric Franck, Kusnacht, 

Switzerland 

53 

Text for 'Hers is a lush situation' 

1963 

Typewriter and ink on paper 

6Va x 1 0in/1 6.5 x 25.5cm 

Collection: H Sohm. Markgroningen, 

Germany 

54 

'AAHI' in perspective 

1963 (second version 1973) 
Oil on board 
10'/4x6 3 /4in/ 26x1 7cm 



55 

Five Tyres abandoned 

1963 

Colored pencils and ink on paper 

19 x-28'/4in/ 48 x 72.5cm 

Collection: Kunsthalle Tubingen, Germany 

56 

Hugh Gaitskell as a Famous Monster 

of Filmland — sketch 

1963 

Crayon and gouache on paper 

1 574 x14 3 /4in/ 39 x 37.5cm 

Collection: Colin St John Wilson, London 

57 

Study for 'Portrait of Hugh Gaitskell 

as a Famous Monster of Filmland' 

1963-70 

Copper on aluminum relief and collage 

on motorized disc 

18 >; 18in / 45.5 . 45.5cm 

58* 

Portrait of Hugh Gaitskell as a Famous 

Monster of Filmland 

1964 

Oil and collage on photograph on panel 

24x24in/61x61cm 

Collection: The Arts Council of Great 

Britain 

59 

Epiphany 

1964 

Cellulose on panel 

48ind./ 122cm d. 

60 

Interior study (a) 

1964 

Collage and oil on paper 

15x20 in/ 38 .,51cm 

Collection: Borough of Swindon Museum 

and Art Gallery. England 

61* 

Interior study (b) 

1964 

Collage, oil, pastel, gouache on paper 

15x20in/38x51cm 

Collection: Anthony Diamond 

62- 

Interior study (c) 

1964 

Collage, oil, pastel on paper 

15x20in/38x51cm 

Collection: Colin St John Wilson, London 



63 

Desk 

1964 

Oil and collage on photograph on panel 

24'/2x35in/62x89cm 

Harry N Abrams Family Collection, 

New York 

64 

Patricia Knight 

1964 

Oil and silkscreen. Ed. 6 

30x20in/76x51cm 

Collection: Rita Donagh 

65 

Interior II 

1964 

Oil, collage, cellulose, metal relief 

on panel 

48x64in/122x162.5cm 

Lent by The Trustees of the Tate Gallery, 

London 

66 

Magic Carpets 

1964 

Collage on printed perspective grid 

15x19in/38x49.5cm 

Collection: Andreas Vowinckel, Cologne 

67 

My Marilyn (paste-up) 

1964 

Photographs and oil 

20x24V2in/51x62cm 

Collection: Wallraf-Richartz Museum, 

Cologne 

68 

My Marilyn 

1965 

Oil on collage on photo on panel 

40V4x48in/ 102.5x1 22cm 

From the Peter Stuyvesant Foundation 

Collection 



69 

Still-life 
1965 
Collage 
8x8in/20.5 



study 



20.5cm 



70 

Still-life 

1965 

Photograph with sprayed photo tints 

35V 3 x35 3 /4in/ 89.5x91 cm 

Collection: Wallraf-Richartz Museum, 

Cologne 



92 



71 

Self-portrait I 

1965 (redrawn 1973) 

Ink on printed paper 

1 1 'A x8'/4in/ 28.5x21 cm 

72 

Self-Portrait II 

1965 

Ink and oil on printed paper 

11V4x8V4in/ 28.5x21 cm 

Collection: Rita Donagh 

73 

Whitley Bay I 

1965 

Tinted photograph 

574 x 8in/1 3.5 x 20.5cm 

74 

Whitley Bay II 

1965 

Tinted photograph 

5 3 /4x8in/ 14.5, 20.5cm 

75 

Whitley Bay 

1965 

Oil on photograph on panel 

32 x48in/ 81x1 22cm 

Private Collection 

76 

People 

1965-66 

Oil and cellulose on photograph on panel 

32x48in/81 x 122cm 

77 

Landscape 

1965-66 

Mixed media on photograph on panel 

32x96in/81x244cm 

Private Collection 

78 

Trafalgar Square — study 

1965 

Oil and acrylic on panel 

16 x26in/ 40.5x61 cm 

Collection: Franco Castelli, Bellagio, Italy 

79 

Trafalgar Square 

1965-67 

Oil on photograph on panel 

32x48in/81x122cm 

Collection: Wallraf-Richartz Museum. 

Cologne 



80 

The Solomon R Guggenheim - 

architect's visual 

1965 

Pastel and gouache on paper 

20x23in/51 x58.5cm 

Collection: The Museum of Modern Art, 

New York, gift of Mr Charles Benenson 

81* 

The Solomon R Guggenheim - study 

1965 

Ink and pencil on paper 

20V2x20V2in/52x52cm 

Collection: The Museum of Modern Art, 

New York. Joseph M and Dorothy B 

Edinburgh Fund 

82 

The Solomon R Guggenheim - 

drawing I 

1965 

Sprayed ink on plastic film 

24V2x23V2in/ 62 x 59.5cm 

83 

The Solomon R Guggenheim — 

drawing II 

1965 

Sprayed ink on plastic film 

24x23in/61 x 58.5cm 

Collection: The Solomon R Guggenheim 

Museum, NewYork 

84 

The Solomon R Guggenheim — 

working drawing 

1965 

Ink and pencil on paper 

22x22in/56x56cm 

85 

The Solomon R Guggenheim (Black 

and White) 

1965-66 

Fiberglass and cellulose 

48x48x7in/122x122x18cm 

Collection: The Solomon R Guggenheim 

Museum, NewYork 

86* 

The Solomon R Guggenheim 

(Neapolitan) 

1965-66 

Fiberglass and cellulose 

48 x 48 x7in/ 122x1 22x1 8cm 

Lent by The Trustees of the Tate Gallery, 

London 



87 

The Solomon R Guggenheim (Black) 

1965-66 

Fiberglass and cellulose 

48x48x7in/122x122x18cm 

Collection: The Solomon R Guggenheim 

Museum, NewYork 



The Solomon R Guggenheim (Gold) 

1965-66 

Fiberglass, cellulose and gold leaf 

48 x 48 x7in/ 122x1 22x1 8cm 

89 

The Solomon R Guggenheim (Metalflake) 

1965-66 

Fiberglass, acrylic, metalflake 

48 x 48 x7in/ 122x1 22x1 8cm 

Lent by Galerie Neuendorf, Hamburg 

90 

The Solomon R Guggenheim (Spectrum) 

1965-66 

Fiberglass and cellulose 

48x48x7in/122x122x18cm 

Collection: The Solomon R Guggenheim 

Museum, NewYork 

91 " 

The Solomon R Guggenheim — 4 studies 

for 'Spectrum' 

1966 

Crayon, watercolor, oil, pencil, ink 

on paper 

7V2x7'/2in each / 19 x 19cm each 

The Museum of Modern Art, NewYork, 

extended loan of The Joan and Lester 

Avnet Collection 

92 

Toaster 

1966-67 (reconstructed 1969) 

Chromed steel and perspex relief on 

color photograph 

32x32in/81x81cm 

93* 

Bathers I 

1966-67 

Mixed media on photograph on canvas 

33x46in/ 84x1 17cm 

Lent by Reinhard Onnasch, Cologne 



93 



94 

Study for 'The Solomon R Guggenheim' 

1967 

Gouache on photograph 

7'/2x7'Ain/19 < 18.5cm 

Collection: The Solomon R Guggenheim 

Museum, New York 

95 

Bathers II 

1967 

Oil on color photograph on canvas 

30 <45in/ 76x1 14.5cm 

96 

Toaster 

1967 

Offset lithograph, silkscreen, metalized 

acetate. Ed. 75 

35 x25in/ 89 x 63.5cm 

97 

I'm dreaming of a white Christmas — 

sketch 

1967 

Watercolor, gouache, crayon, pencil 

on paper 

27'A. ■ 39 3 /<in/69 -101cm 

98 

I'm dreaming of a white Christmas — 

study 

1967 

Lithograph and gouache on paper 

28x36in/71 -91.5cm 

Lent by Galeria del Leone 

99 

I'm dreaming of a white Christmas — 

working drawings for screen print 

1967 

Ink on plastic films 

23'/4x36'Ain/59x92cm 

Collection; Rolf Becker, Bremen 

100 

I'm dreaming of a white Christmas 

1967-68 

Oil on canvas 

42 x63in/ 106.5x1 60cm 

101 

The critic laughs 

1968 

Offset lithograph, laminate, silkscreen, 

enamel. Ed. 125 

23'/2x18'/4in/ 59.5 x 46.5cm 



102* 

Swingeing London 67 - sketch 

1968 

Pencil, pastel, watercolor, metalized 

acetate on paper 

13x19in/33x48cm 

Collection: The Arts Council of Great 

Britain 

103 

Swingeing London 67 — source material 

1968 

Collage and watercolor on paper 

27 x 18 3 /4in /68.5,47.5cm 

Collection: Daniela Palazzoli, Milan 

104 

Swingeing London 67 — working drawing 

1968 

Ink and gouache on photograph 

16x20in/40.5x51cm 

105 

Swingeing London 67 

1968 

Relief, silkscreen on oil on photograph 

on board 

23x31 x3in/58.5 ■ 79, 7.5cm 

Collection: Colin St John Wilson, London 

106 

Picturegram 

1968 

Oil on photograph on canvas 

40x25'/sin/101.5x65cm 

107 

People/Popel (in collaboration with 

Dieter Rot) 

1968 

Acrylic, collage, cellulose, gouache on 

photograph 

23Vsx31in/60x79cm 

Collection: Petersburg Press, London 

108 

People multiple (1/1) 

1968 

Photographs, aluminium, papor 

1 774 , 27V4in / 44 ■ 69cm 

Collection: Sergio and Fausta Tosi 

109 

The Beatles 

1968 

Collage 

34'/2x23in/ 87.5 < 58.5cm 



110 

Swingeing London 67 (a) 

1968-69 

Oil on canvas and silkscreen 

26V2x33V2in/67x85cm 

Collection: Rita Donagh 

111 

Swingeing London 67 (b) 

1968-69 

Oil on canvas and silkscreen 

26V2x33V2in/67x85cm 

Collection: Wallraf-Richartz Museum, 

Cologne 

112 

Swingeing London 67 (c) 

1968-69 

Oil on canvas and silkscreen 

26V2x33V 2 in/67x85cm 

Collection: Andree Stassart, Paris 

113 

Swingeing London 67 (d) 

1968-69 

Oil on canvas and silkscreen 

26'/2x33'/2in/67- 85cm 

Collection: Franco Castelli, Bellagio, Italy 

114 

Swingeing London 67 (e) 

1968-69 

Enamel on canvas and silkscreen 

26V2x33V2in/67> 85cm 

Collection: Christopher Selmes, London 

115* 

Swingeing London 67 (f) 

1968-69 

Silkscreen on canvas, acrylic and collage 

26'/2x33V2in/67x85cm 

Lent by The Trustees of the Tate Gallery, 

London 

116 

After Marcel Duchamp? 

1969 

Color photographs (2) 

Each 9V2x 11 Vain/ 24 ■ 29cm 

117 

People again 

1969 

Crayon, gouache, collage, etc. on 

photograph 

12'/4x20in/31 x51cm 

Private Collection 



94 



118 

I'm dreaming of a white Christmas 

1969 

Dye transfer. Ed. 6 

14V4x21'A.in/36x54cm 

119 

Fashion-plate study (a) self-portrait 

1969 

Collage, enamel, cosmetics on paper 

27 3 /4x19 3 /4in/70x50cm 

Collection: Rita Donagh 

120 

Fashion-plate study (b) 

1969 

Collage, enamel, cosmetics on paper 

27 3 /4x19 3 /4in/70x50cm 

Collection: Eric Franck, Kusnacht, 

Switzerland 

121 

Fashion-plate study (c) 

1969 

Collage, enamel, cosmetics on paper 

27 3 Ax19 3 /4in/70x50cm 

Collection: Eric Franck, Kusnacht, 

Switzerland 

122 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study I) 

1969 

Collage, enamel, acrylic, cosmetics on 

lithographed paper 

39'/2x27 3 /4in/100. 70cm 

Collection: Eric Franck, Kusnacht, 

Switzerland 

123 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study II) 

1969 

Collage, enamel, acrylic, cosmetics on 

lithographed paper 

3972 x27 3 A>in/ 100 -70cm 

Collection: Eric Franck, Kusnacht, 

Switzerland 

124 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study III) 

1969 

Collage, enamel, acrylic, cosmetics on 

lithographed paper 

39'/ 2 x27 3 /4in/ 100 x70cm 

Collection: Eric Franck, Kusnacht, 

Switzerland 



125 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study IV) 

1969 

Collage, enamel, acrylic, cosmetics on 

lithographed paper 

39'/2x27 3 /4in/100 -,70cm 

Collection: Eric Franck, Kusnacht, 

Switzerland 

126 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study V) 

1969 

Collage, acrylic, cosmetics on 

lithographed paper 

39V2x-27 3 /4in/100 ■. 70cm 

Collection: Eric Franck, Kusnacht, 

Switzerland 

127 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study VI) 

1969 

Collage, enamel, cosmetics on 

lithographed paper 

39'/2x27 3 /4in/100 ■ 70cm 

Collection: Eric Franck, Kusnacht, 

Switzerland 

128 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study VII) 

1969 

Collage, pastel, acrylic, cosmetics on 

lithographed paper 

39V2x27 3 Ain/100 ■ 70cm 

Collection: Eric Franck, Kusnacht, 

Switzerland 

129 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study VIM) 

1969 

Collage, pastel, acrylic, enamel on 

lithographed paper 

39'/2x27 3 /4in/100 ■ 70cm 

Collection: Eric Franck, Kusnacht, 

Switzerland 

130 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study IX) 

1969 

Collage, pastel, acrylic, cosmetics on 

lithographed paper 

39'/2x27 3 Ain/ 100 x70cm 

Collection: Eric Franck, Kusnacht, 

Switzerland 



131 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study X) 

1969 

Collage, enamel, pastel, cosmetics on 

lithographed paper 

39'/2x27 3 /4in/100, 70cm 

Collection: Eric Franck, Kusnacht, 

Switzerland 

132 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study XI) 

1969 

Collage, acrylic, cosmetics on 

lithographed paper 

39V2x27 3 /<in/ 100 • 70cm 

Collection: Eric Franck, Kusnacht, 

Switzerland 

133 

Fashion-plate (cosmetic study XII) 

1969 

Collage, pastel, cosmetics on 

lithographed paper 

39V2x27 3 /4in/100v70cm 

Collection: Eric Franck, Kusnacht, 

Switzerland 

134 

Chicago project I 

1969 

Acrylic on photograph on board 

32x48in/81 • 122 cm 

Collection: British Council, London 

135 

Chicago project II 

1969 

Oil on photograph on canvas 

32x48in/81 x 122cm 

Collection: British Council, London 

136 

Toaster study I 

1969 

Letrafilm on color photograph 

15V4x8'/4in/38.7x20.7cm 

Collection: Rita Donagh 

137 

Toaster study II 

1969 

Letrafilm on color photograph 

1 5'/4x874in/ 38. 7x 20.7cm 

Lent by Studio Marconi, Milan 

138 

Toaster study III 

1969 

Letrafilm on color photograph 

15V4x8'/4in/ 38.7 x 20.7cm 

Private Collection. Rome 



95 



139 

Study for 'Fashion-plate' 

1969 

Pastel and pencil on paper 

16x12in/40.5x30.5cm 

140 

Kent State 

1970 

Pastel on paper 

22'/4x30in/ 56.5 :< 76.2cm 

Lent by Studio Marconi, Milan 

141 

Portrait of the artist by Francis Bacon - 

study I 

1970 

Oil on collotype 

32'/4x27V4in/82x69cm 

142 

Portrait of the artist by Francis Bacon - 

study II 

1970 

Oil on collotype 

32V4:.:27'/4in /82,69cm 

143 

Portrait of the artist by Francis Bacon - 

study III 

1970 

Oil on collotype 

3274 x2774in/ 82 x 69cm 

144 

Portrait of the artist by Francis Bacon - 

study IV 

1970 

Oil on collotype 

32'/4x27V4in/82x69cm 

145 

Portrait of the artist by Francis Bacon - 

study V 

1970 

Oil on collotype 

3274, 27'Ain/ 82-: 69cm 

146 

Portrait of the artist by Francis Bacon - 

study VI 

1970 

Oil on collotype 

3274 x27V<in/ 82 x 69cm 

147 

The critic laughs 

1971-72 

Electric toothbrush with teeth, case and 

instruction book. Ed 60 

1 0Vs x 474 x 674in / 27 x 1 1 x 1 6cm 



148 

The critic laughs — case 

1971 

Ink, ben day tints, metalized acetate 

on mylar 

18 x 25 3 Ain/ 46 /65.5cm 

149 

Soft pink landscape - study 

1971 

Collage, colored pencils, watercolor 

on paper 

22x29Vain/56x75cm 

150 

Soft pink landscape 

1971-72 

Oil on canvas 

48x64in/122x162.5cm 

151 

Eine kleine schone Scheisse 

1971 

Ink on mylar 

11 V< ■ 972in/30,-24cm 

152 

Munchen/Bordeaux 

1971 

Collage on paper 

5 3 /4 ,:3 3 /4tn / 1 4.7 x 9.6cm 

153 

Soft blue landscape 

1971 

Pencil, ink, colored pencils, gouache 

on paper 

23x21 in/ 58.5 ■ 53.5cm 

154 

Five Tyres remoulded — computer 

drawing 

1971 

Ink on paper 

25x37in / 63.5 x 94cm 

155 

Soft pink landscape — study I 

1972 

Oil on dye transfer 

24 3 /4>;3074in/63 ■ 76.5cm 

156 

Soft pink landscape — study II 

1972 

Oil on dye transfer 

24 3 /4x3074in/ 63 x 76.5cm 



157 

Soft pink landscape — study III 

1972 

Oil on dye transfer 

24 3 /4x3074in/ 63 x 76.5cm 

158 

Soft pink landscape — study IV 

1972 

Chinagraph pencil, oil on dye transfer 

24 3 A . 3074in/ 63 x 76.5cm 

159 

Trade Mark 

1972 

Ink and pencil on card 

8 3 /4x8V4in/22x21cm 

160 

The critic laughs - illustration 

1972 

Letraset on photograph on board 

87jx7 3 /4in/ 21.6x1 9. 7cm 

161 

Girl with skirt up 

1972 

Collage, pencil, acrylic, oil on printed paper 

22 x 16in/ 56 x 40.5cm 

162 

Etude pour les eaux de Miers 

1972 

Pencil on paper 

774 . 11 in/ 18 -28cm 

163 

Girl with tights down 

1972 

Collage, arcylic, oil on printed paper 

22 3 /4x18in/58x46cm 

164 

Surprised girl 

1972 

Pencil, colored pencils, pastel, acrylic 

on paper 

22 3 /4x18in/58 ■ 46cm 

165 

Girl surprised in the forest 

1972 

Pastel and watercolor on paper 

2374 x 18Vjin/ 59 x 47cm 

166 

Picasso's meninas 

1973 

Pencil, ink and wash on paper 
30x22in/76x56cm 
Collection: Rita Donagh 



96 



Selected Bibliography 



By the artist 

Catalogue texts listed under exhibitions and reviews 



'Hommage a Chrysler Corp.,' Architectural Design, vol. xxviii, 
no. 3, March 1958, pp. 120-121. 

'Towards a Typographical Rendering of the Green Box,' 
Uppercase, 2, 1959, n. p. 

'Diagrammar,' The Developing Process, Newcastle, 1959, 
pp. 1 9-26. 'Work in progress towards a new foundation of art 
teaching as developed at the Department of Fine Art, King's 
College, Durham University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne and at Leeds 
College of Art.' 

'Glorious Technicolour, Breathtaking Cinemascope and 
Stereophonic Sound.' 1959. Unpublished typescript of lecture on 
technical innovations in the leisure industries. 

'Persuading Image,' Design, 134, February 1960, pp. 28-32. 

'Artists as Consumers; the Splendid Bargain,' 1960. Unpublished 
BBC transcript of discussion between Lawrence Alloway, Basil 
Taylor, Richard Hamilton and Eduardo Paolozzi, in the series 
Art-anti-art; produced by Leonie Cohn, recorded January 18, 
1 960, broadcast BBC Third Programme, March 11,1 960 

'Art and Design,' Popular Culture and Personal Responsibility, 
October 26-28, 1960, pp. 135-155. Lecture followed by 
transcript of discussion, verbatim report of National Union of 
Teachers Conference, Church House, Westminster. 

Diagram and 'The Green Book,' The Bride Stripped Bare by her 
Bachelors Even, Lund Humphries, 1960. Typographic version 
by Hamilton of Duchamp's Green Box. 

'FoB+10,' Design, 149, May 1961, p. 42. 

'For the Finest An try- POP,' Gazette, no. 1, 1961. 

Statement on 'GloriousTechniculture,' (49), Architectural Design, 
vol. xxi, no. 1 1 , November 1 961 , p. 497. Part of 27 pages devoted 
to buildings and art assembled on the South Bank for the 
Congress of the International Union of Architects, London, 
July 1961. 

'About art teaching, basically,' Motif, 8, Winter 1961, pp. 17-23. 

'An exposition of $he,' Architectural Design, vol. xxxii, no. 10, 
October 1962, pp. 485-486. 

Ark, 34, Journal of the Royal College of Art, London, Summer 
1963, pp. 4, 14-16, 24-26, 34, 37. Text and illustrations on 
commissioned theme of incidence and selection of images 
experienced in daily life. 

'Urbane Image,' Living Arts, 2, 1963, pp. 44-59, inside and 
outside cover photographs. 

'Duchamp,' Art International, vol. vii, no. 10, January 16, 1964, 
pp. 22-28. 

Interview with Andrew Forge, 1964. Unpublished BBC transcript, 
produced by Leonie Cohn, recorded November 3, 1964, 
broadcast in part on 'New Comment,' November 1964, in full on 
April 5, 1965. Both broadcasts BBC Third Programme. 



Portrait of Hugh Gaitskell as a Famous Monster of Filmland,' 

1964. Unpublished typescript. 

Cordier & Ekstrom, Inc, New York, NOT SEEN and/or LESS 
SEEN of/by MARCEL DUCHAMP/RROSE SELAVY 1904-1964 
(catalogue of the Mary Sisler Collection), January— February 

1965. Introduction and notes on works. 

The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors Even Again, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1966, Account of Hamilton's 
reconstruction of Duchamp's Large Glass. 

Arts Council of Great Britain, The Tate Gallery, Marcel Duchamp 
Retrospective, June 1 8— July 31, 1966. Introduction and notes to 
catalogue. 

'Son of the Bride Stripped Bare,' Art and Artists, vol. 1 , no. 4, 
July 1966, pp. 22-28. Interview with Mario Amaya on Hamilton's 
reconstruction of Duchamp's 'Large Glass.' 

'Roy Lichtenstein,' Studio International, vol. 175, no. 896, 
January 1968, pp. 20-24. 

Interview with Christopher Finch and Anne Seymour. 
Unpublished BBC transcript, produced by Leonie Cohn, 
recorded May 3, 1968, broadcast B3C Third Programme, 
May 15, 1968. Allen Jones also interviewed. 

Conversation with Christopher Finch and James Scott, 1969. 
Unpublished, pre-edited transcript made for Arts Council/Maya 
Film Productions on work of 1968. 

Photography and painting,' Studio International, vol. 177, 
no. 909, March 1969, pp. 120-125, cover. 



97 



On the artist 

Banham, Reyner, 'Vision in Motion,' Art, January 5, 1955, p. 3. 

Alloway, Lawrence, 'Artists as Consumers,' Image, no. 3, 1961, 
pp. 14-19. 

Alloway, Lawrence, ' 'Pop Art' since 1 949,' The Listener, 27, 
December 1962, pp. 1085-1087. 

Reichardt, Jasia, 'Pop Art & After,' Art International, vol. vii, 
no. 2, February 1963, pp. 42-47. 

Spencer, Charles, 'Richard Hamilton Painter of 'Being Today',' 
Studio International, vol. 168, no. 858, October 1964, 
pp. 176-181. 

Procktor, Patrick, 'Techniculture,' The New Statesman, vol. 68, 
no. 1756, November 6, 1964, p. 710. 

Russell, John and Lord Snowdon in Robertson, Russell, Snow- 
don, Private View, Nelson, 1965, pp. 258-259. 

McNay, M. G., 'Big Daddy of pop,' The Guardian, July 25, 1966, 
p. 7. 

Finch, Christopher, 'Richard Hamilton,' Art International, vol. x, 
no. 8, October 1966, pp. 16-23. 

Baro, Gene, 'Hamilton's Guggenheim,' Art and Artists, vol. 1 , 
no. 8, November 1966, pp. 28-31 . 

Lippard, Lucy, ed., Pop Art, Thames & Hudson, 1966 Lawrence 
Alloway, 'The Development of British Pop,' pp. 26-67. 

Banham, Reyner, 'Representations in Protest,' New Society, 
May 8, 1969, pp. 717-718. 

Alloway, Lawrence, 'Popular Culture and Pop Art,' Studio Inter- 
national, vol.178, no. 913, July-August 1969, pp. 17-21. 

Finch, Christopher. Image as Language, Aspects of British Art 
7950-68, Pelican Books, 1969. 

Russell, John and Suzi Gablik, Pop Art Redefined, Thames & 
Hudson, 1 969. Contains reprint of Hamilton's 'An exposition of 
$he,' cited above. 

Kenedy, R. C, 'Richard Hamilton Visited,' Art and Artists, vol. 4, 
March 1970, pp. 20-23. 



Exhibitions 

Gimpel Fi Is. London, February 1950. Reaper engravings. 

Institute of Contemporary Arts, London, July 4— August 31, 1951, 
Growth and Form. Exhibition devised and designed by Hamilton. 

Hanover Gallery, London, January 1955, Paintings 1951 -1955. 

Hatton Gallery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, May 1955; Institute of 
Contemporary Arts, London, July 6-30, 1955, Man, Machine and 
Motion. Exhibition devised and organized by Hamilton. Catalogue 
commentary by Reyner Banham. 

Whitechapel Gallery, London, August-September 1956, This is 
Tomorrow. Environment on twin themes of perception and 
popular imagery devised by Hamilton, John McHale and John 
Voelcker. 

Hatton Gallery, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, June 3-19, 1957; 
Institute of Contemporary Arts, London, August 13-24, 1957, 
an Exhibit. Exhibition devised and organized by Hamilton with 
Lawrence Alloway and Victor Pasmore. Catalogue text by 
Lawrence Alloway. 

Hanover Gallery, London, October 20-November 20, 1 964. 
Paintings 1956-1964. Catalogue text by Hamilton. 

Robert Fraser Gallery, London, October-November 1966. 
Guggenheim reliefs and studies. 

Galerie Ricke, Kassel, March 1967. drawings and prints. 

Arts Council Gallery, London, April 14-May 20, 1967, Drawing 
Towards Painting 2. Catalogue introduction by Anne Seymour. 

Galerie Alexandre lolas, New York, May 1 -31 , 1 967. Paintings 
1 964-1 967, first New York exhibition. Catalogue text by 
Hamilton. 

Studio Marconi, Milan, November 1968. Work 1957-1968. 
Catalogue contains translation of Hamilton's 'Urbane Image,' 
cited above. 

Robert Fraser Gallery, London, April-May 1969. Swingeing 
London and beach scene paintings. 

Wurttembergischer Kunstverein, May-June 1969, Richard 
Hamilton Graphik 1963-1968. 

Studio Marconi, Milan, December 1969, Cosmetic Studies. 

Galerie Hans Neuendorf, Hamburg, November 1969. Paintings 
and graphics. 

Galerie Rene Block, Berlin, January 1970, Cosmetic Studies. 

Onnasch Galerie, Berlin, June 1970, Richard Hamilton 
Complete Graphics. 

The Tate Gallery, London, Richard Hamilton, March 12— April 19, 
1970. Catalogue introduction and commentary by Richard 
Morphet, Exhibition traveled to: Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, 
Eindhoven, May 15-June 28, 1970; Kunsthalle, Bern, July 25- 
August30, 1970. 

The National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, September-October 
1970 and Canadian tour to December 1971. Prints. Catalogue text 

by Hamilton. 



98 



Studio Marconi, Milan, January 1 971 . Recent Editions. 

Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, February-March 1971. Prints and 
multiples, shown in connection with receiving Talens Prize 
international. 

Galerie Rene Block, Berlin, July 1971. 

Elvehjem Art Center, Madison, Wisconsin, September-October 
1971. Prints. 

Castelli Graphics, New York, December 1971 -January 1972. 
Richard Hamilton: Graphic Work. 

Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester, January-February 1972. 
Richard Hamilton: Prints, multiples and drawings. 

Nigel Greenwood Inc., London, May-June 1972. Five Tyres 
remoulded. 

Institute of Contemporary Arts, London, June 1972. Kent State 
and Release progressives. 

Studio Marconi, Milan. December 1972 

Galerie Rene Block, Berlin, February 1973. 

Solomon R Guggenheim Museum, September 1973. 



99 
Chronology 



1 922 Born February 24, London. 

1934 Started to attend evening art classes at local adult 
education center, Pimlico. 

1936 Left school. Worked for a year in advertising 
department of electrical engineering firm. Attended 
evening art classes Westminster Technical College 
and St. Martin's School of Art. 

1937 Worked in display department of Reimann Studios 
(an art school and commercial studios), where he 
spent much time in life class. 

1938 Studied painting at Royal Academy Schools 
to 1940. 

1940 Took engineering draftsmanship course. 

1941 Employed as jig and tool draftsman until 1945. 

1 946 Resumed study at Royal Academy Schools; 
expelled in July for 'not profiting by the instruction 
given in the Painting School.' Began 18 months 
military service. 

1947 Married Terry O'Reilly. 

1948 Student of painting at Slade School of Art to 1951 ; 
made many etchings. 

1950 First one-man exhibition. 

1951 First experience devising and designing exhibition 

1952 Teacher, to 1953, of design to silversmithing, 
typography and industrial design students at 
Central School of Arts and Crafts. Fellow teachers 
included Paolozzi, Pasmore, Turnbull, Ehrenzweig. 
Member of Independent Group formed at Institute 
of Contemporary Arts. Other members included 
Lawrence Alloway, Reyner Banham, Paolozzi, 
Turnbull, Colin St. John Wilson, Jim Stirling. 

1953 Appointed lecturer King's College, University of 
Durham (later University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne) 
to 1966. Taught Basic Design Course, which was 
eventually merged with Pasmore's design class, 
to all fine-arts students, regardless of their 
specialization. Roots of this course were in 
experience at Central School in 1952. 

1 957 Began to teach Interior Design at Royal College of 
Art, to 1961 . (Teaching appointments were never in 
painting, his principal professional involvement.) 

1960 Received William and Noma Copley Foundation 
award for painting. 

1 962 Death of wife in car accident. 

1963 First visit to United States. 

1 965 Began reconstruction, to 1 966, of Marcel 
Duchamp's Large Glass. 



1966 



1969 



1970 



Organized Arts Council exhibition The Almost 
Complete Works of Marcel Duchamp, Tate Gallery 

Collaborated with James Scott on a 25 minute 
color film on his work and its sources, produced 
by Maya Film Productions for the Arts Council of 
Great Britain. 

Awarded joint first prize (with Mary Martin), 
John Moores Liverpool Exhibition 7. 

Received Talens Prize International. 



100 



Photograph Credits 

Ugo Mulas, Frontispiece 

The Solomon R Guggenheim Museum 83, 94 

Beatrice Heyligers 71 

Jacqueline Hyde 16 

Frank Kenworthy 42 

Studio Marconi 20, 136, 137, 138, 140 

The Tate Gallery 1,2,3,4,6,7.9, 10, 11, 14, 17,21,22,24,26, 
28, 29, 33, 34, 35, 49, 51 , 54, 55, 60, 61 , 66, 67, 69, 72, 82, 97, 98, 
101, 102. 104, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112. 116, 117, 118, 120, 121 

John Webb 8, 12, 19, 25, 30, 31. 38, 40, 45, 47, 53, 62, 63, 64, 67, 
70, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 80, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 91 , 92, 93, 
139, 148, 149, 151, 152, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 161, 162, 163, 164, 
165, 166, 167, 168 

Colour blocks loaned by: 
Art International 65, 68 
Kunstverlag Fingerle + Co 52 
Tate Gallery 1 8, 32, 46. 88, 94. 1 1 5 



Exhibition 73/5 

2,500 copies of this catalogue designed by Gordon House, London 
have been printed by Bruder Hartmann, Berlin 
in September 1 973 for the Trustees of 
The Solomon R Guggenheim Foundation 



Richard Hamilton 









/• 






A 



The Solomon R Guggenheim Museum 
New York